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Higher Intakes of Fruits and Vegetables, β-Carotene, Vitamin C, α-Tocopherol, EPA, and DHA Are Positively Associated with Periodontal Healing after Nonsurgical Periodontal Therapy in Nonsmokers but Not in Smokers.
J Nutr 2015; 145(11):2512-9JN

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease and a significant risk factor for tooth loss. Although a link between diet and periodontal health exists, the relation between diet and healing after periodontal therapy has yet to be investigated.

OBJECTIVE

The objective was to determine whether higher intakes of fruits and vegetables or nutrients with antioxidant or anti-inflammatory activity are associated with greater healing, measured as reduced probing depth (PD), after scaling and root planing (SRP), a cost-effective treatment to manage periodontal disease and prevent tooth loss.

METHODS

Patients (63 nonsmokers, 23 smokers) with chronic generalized periodontitis who were undergoing SRP participated. Healing was evaluated based on PD, assessed at baseline and 8-16 wk after SRP. Intakes of fruits, vegetables, β-carotene, vitamin C, α-tocopherol, α-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were estimated using the Block 2005 food frequency questionnaire and a supplement questionnaire. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations were also measured. PD (% sites >3 mm) was modeled in multiple linear regression and analysis of covariance by tertile of intake and adjusted for age, sex, body mass index (BMI), baseline PD, examiner, gingival bleeding, and study duration.

RESULTS

In nonsmokers, PD was associated with fruit and vegetable, β-carotene, vitamin C, α-tocopherol, EPA, and DHA intakes (P < 0.05). PD was not significantly associated with ALA intake or serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration. Significant associations that included supplements (β-carotene, vitamin C, α-tocopherol) were attenuated or lost, depending on the statistical model used. There were no significant associations within the group of smokers.

CONCLUSIONS

Dietary intakes of fruits and vegetables, β-carotene, vitamin C, α-tocopherol, EPA, and DHA are associated with reduced PD after SRP in nonsmokers, but not smokers, with chronic generalized periodontitis. These findings may lead to the development of dietary strategies to optimize healing after periodontal procedures. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02291835.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Kinesiology, Faculty of Applied Health Sciences, Brock University, St. Catharines, Ontario, Canada; and.Department of Kinesiology, Faculty of Applied Health Sciences, Brock University, St. Catharines, Ontario, Canada; and Reconstructive Periodontics and Implant Surgery Clinic, Fonthill, Ontario, Canada.Department of Kinesiology, Faculty of Applied Health Sciences, Brock University, St. Catharines, Ontario, Canada; and.Department of Kinesiology, Faculty of Applied Health Sciences, Brock University, St. Catharines, Ontario, Canada; and wward@brocku.ca.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

26423734

Citation

Dodington, David W., et al. "Higher Intakes of Fruits and Vegetables, β-Carotene, Vitamin C, α-Tocopherol, EPA, and DHA Are Positively Associated With Periodontal Healing After Nonsurgical Periodontal Therapy in Nonsmokers but Not in Smokers." The Journal of Nutrition, vol. 145, no. 11, 2015, pp. 2512-9.
Dodington DW, Fritz PC, Sullivan PJ, et al. Higher Intakes of Fruits and Vegetables, β-Carotene, Vitamin C, α-Tocopherol, EPA, and DHA Are Positively Associated with Periodontal Healing after Nonsurgical Periodontal Therapy in Nonsmokers but Not in Smokers. J Nutr. 2015;145(11):2512-9.
Dodington, D. W., Fritz, P. C., Sullivan, P. J., & Ward, W. E. (2015). Higher Intakes of Fruits and Vegetables, β-Carotene, Vitamin C, α-Tocopherol, EPA, and DHA Are Positively Associated with Periodontal Healing after Nonsurgical Periodontal Therapy in Nonsmokers but Not in Smokers. The Journal of Nutrition, 145(11), pp. 2512-9. doi:10.3945/jn.115.211524.
Dodington DW, et al. Higher Intakes of Fruits and Vegetables, β-Carotene, Vitamin C, α-Tocopherol, EPA, and DHA Are Positively Associated With Periodontal Healing After Nonsurgical Periodontal Therapy in Nonsmokers but Not in Smokers. J Nutr. 2015;145(11):2512-9. PubMed PMID: 26423734.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Higher Intakes of Fruits and Vegetables, β-Carotene, Vitamin C, α-Tocopherol, EPA, and DHA Are Positively Associated with Periodontal Healing after Nonsurgical Periodontal Therapy in Nonsmokers but Not in Smokers. AU - Dodington,David W, AU - Fritz,Peter C, AU - Sullivan,Philip J, AU - Ward,Wendy E, Y1 - 2015/09/30/ PY - 2015/01/30/received PY - 2015/09/08/accepted PY - 2015/10/2/entrez PY - 2015/10/2/pubmed PY - 2016/2/13/medline KW - anti-inflammatory KW - antioxidants KW - bone KW - healing KW - oral health KW - periodontal health KW - tooth retention SP - 2512 EP - 9 JF - The Journal of nutrition JO - J. Nutr. VL - 145 IS - 11 N2 - BACKGROUND: Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease and a significant risk factor for tooth loss. Although a link between diet and periodontal health exists, the relation between diet and healing after periodontal therapy has yet to be investigated. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to determine whether higher intakes of fruits and vegetables or nutrients with antioxidant or anti-inflammatory activity are associated with greater healing, measured as reduced probing depth (PD), after scaling and root planing (SRP), a cost-effective treatment to manage periodontal disease and prevent tooth loss. METHODS: Patients (63 nonsmokers, 23 smokers) with chronic generalized periodontitis who were undergoing SRP participated. Healing was evaluated based on PD, assessed at baseline and 8-16 wk after SRP. Intakes of fruits, vegetables, β-carotene, vitamin C, α-tocopherol, α-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were estimated using the Block 2005 food frequency questionnaire and a supplement questionnaire. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations were also measured. PD (% sites >3 mm) was modeled in multiple linear regression and analysis of covariance by tertile of intake and adjusted for age, sex, body mass index (BMI), baseline PD, examiner, gingival bleeding, and study duration. RESULTS: In nonsmokers, PD was associated with fruit and vegetable, β-carotene, vitamin C, α-tocopherol, EPA, and DHA intakes (P < 0.05). PD was not significantly associated with ALA intake or serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration. Significant associations that included supplements (β-carotene, vitamin C, α-tocopherol) were attenuated or lost, depending on the statistical model used. There were no significant associations within the group of smokers. CONCLUSIONS: Dietary intakes of fruits and vegetables, β-carotene, vitamin C, α-tocopherol, EPA, and DHA are associated with reduced PD after SRP in nonsmokers, but not smokers, with chronic generalized periodontitis. These findings may lead to the development of dietary strategies to optimize healing after periodontal procedures. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02291835. SN - 1541-6100 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/26423734/Higher_Intakes_of_Fruits_and_Vegetables_β_Carotene_Vitamin_C_α_Tocopherol_EPA_and_DHA_Are_Positively_Associated_with_Periodontal_Healing_after_Nonsurgical_Periodontal_Therapy_in_Nonsmokers_but_Not_in_Smokers_ L2 - https://academic.oup.com/jn/article-lookup/doi/10.3945/jn.115.211524 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -