Protein profile of cotyledon, tegument, and embryonic axis of mature acorns from a non-orthodox plant species: Quercus ilex.Planta. 2016 Feb; 243(2):369-96.P
Contrary to the orthodox seeds, recalcitrant Holm oak seeds possess the enzymatic machinery to start germination during the maturation phase. The protein profile of the different parts, mature seeds, of the Holm oak, a non-orthodox plant species, has been characterized using one- and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled to matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry. Protein content and profiles of the three seed tissues (cotyledon, embryonic axis and tegument) were quite different. The embryonic axis showed 4-fold and 20-fold higher protein content than the cotyledon and the tegument, respectively. Two hundred and twenty-six variable proteins among the three seed parts were identified, being classified according to their function into eight main groups. The cotyledon presented the highest number of metabolic and storage proteins (89% of them are legumin) compared to the embryonic axis and tegument. The embryonic axis had the highest number of the species within the protein fate group. The tegument presented the largest number of the defense-/stress-related and cytoskeleton proteins. This distribution is in good agreement with the biological role of the tissues. The study of the seed tissue proteome demonstrated a compartmentalization of pathways and a division of metabolic tasks between embryonic axis, cotyledon and tegument. This compartmentalization uncovered in our study should provide a starting point for understanding, at the molecular level, the particularities of the recalcitrant seeds.