Sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and risk of incident chronic kidney disease: Tehran lipid and glucose study.Nephrology (Carlton) 2016; 21(7):608-16N
To evaluate cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships between sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs), sugar sweetened carbonated soft drinks (SSSDs), and fruit juice drink consumption and risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in a population based study.
At baseline, 2382 participants, aged >27 years, of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study with complete data on serum creatinine, cardio-metabolic risk factors, and diet were included for cross-sectional analysis. After 3 years, 1690 subjects, free of baseline CKD and with complete follow-up data, were included for longitudinal analysis. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study equation and CKD was defined as eGFR < 60 mL/min per 1.73 m(2) . Dietary intake was collected using a food-frequency questionnaire and SSSDs and all kinds of fruit juice drinks were combined to estimate the intake of SSBs. To assess the association of SSBs and CKD, logistic regression adjusted for age, sex, energy intake, smoking, physical activity, body mass index, sodium, diabetes, and hypertension were used.
The mean age of participants and serving of SSBs/week were 45.0 years and 2.3, respectively. Compared to participants taking <0.5 serving/week, consumption of more than four servings of SSBs and SSSDs per week was associated with increased odds ratio (OR) of prevalent CKD (1.77 and 2.14, respectively). In longitudinal analyses, the risk of incident CKD increased by consumption of four servings/week, compared to less than 0.5 serving/week of SSBs (OR: 1.96; 95% confidence interval (CI):1.23-3.15) and SSSDs (OR: 2.45; 95% CI:1.55-3.89).
Consumption of over four servings per week of SSBs and SSSDs was associated with higher prevalence and incidence of CKD.