Effects of diet form and type on growth performance, carcass yield, and iodine value of finishing pigs.J Anim Sci. 2015 Sep; 93(9):4486-99.JA
Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of pelleting, diet type (fat and fiber level), and withdrawal of dietary fiber and fat before marketing on growth performance, carcass yield, and carcass fat iodine value (IV) of finishing pigs. Each experiment used 288 pigs (initially 49.6 and 48.5 kg BW, respectively) with 6 dietary treatments arranged as 2 × 3 factorials. In Exp. 1, main effects were diet form (meal vs. pellet) and diet regimen. Diet regimens were 1) a low-fiber, low-fat (corn-soybean meal) diet from d 0 to 81, 2) a high-fiber, high-fat (30% dried distillers grains with solubles [DDGS] and 19% wheat middlings [midds]) diet from d 0 to 64 followed by the low-fiber, low-fat diet from d 64 to 81 (fiber and fat withdrawal), and 3) the high-fiber, high-fat diet fed from d 0 to 81. Pigs fed pelleted diets had increased (< 0.05) ADG and G:F compared with those fed meal diets. Pigs fed pelleted diets had increased belly fat IV (2.9 mg/g) compared with those fed meal diets, with a greater increase when fed high-fiber, high-fat diets throughout the entire study (interaction, < 0.05). Pigs fed the low-fiber, low-fat diet throughout had increased (< 0.001) G:F compared with pigs fed the other 2 treatments. Pigs fed low-fiber, low-fat diets throughout the study or pigs withdrawn from high-fiber, high-fat diets had increased (< 0.001) carcass yield compared with pigs fed high-fiber, high-fat diets throughout. In Exp. 2, treatment main effects were diet form (meal vs. pellet) and diet type (corn-soybean meal-based control, the control with 30% DDGS and 19% midds, or the control diet with 3% corn oil). The diet containing corn oil was calculated to produce carcass fat IV similar to diets containing DDGS and midds. Overall, pigs fed pelleted diets had increased (< 0.05) ADG, G:F, and belly fat IV (1.3 mg/g) compared with those fed meal diets. Pigs fed the diets containing DDGS and midds had decreased (< 0.05) ADG, carcass yield, and HCW compared with pigs fed the control or corn oil diets and decreased (< 0.001) G:F compared with pigs fed added corn oil. Belly IV was greatest (< 0.001) for pigs fed diets with DDGS and midds and lowest for pigs fed the control diet, with pigs fed the corn oil diets intermediate. In conclusion, pelleting diets improves pig ADG (approximately 3%) and G:F (approximately 6%); however, a novel finding of this study is that pelleting diets fed to finishing pigs also increases belly fat IV.