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Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Is Lower in US Adults Taking Chromium-Containing Supplements.

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Dietary supplement use is widespread in the United States. Although it has been suggested in both in vitro and small in vivo human studies that chromium has potentially beneficial effects in type 2 diabetes (T2D), chromium supplementation in diabetes has not been investigated at the population level.

OBJECTIVE

The objective of this study was to examine the use and potential benefits of chromium supplementation in T2D by examining NHANES data.

METHODS

An individual was defined as having diabetes if he or she had a glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) value of ≥6.5%, or reported having been diagnosed with diabetes. Data on all consumed dietary supplements from the NHANES database were analyzed, with the OR of having diabetes as the main outcome of interest based on chromium supplement use.

RESULTS

The NHANES for the years 1999-2010 included information on 62,160 individuals. After filtering the database for the required covariates (gender, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, body mass index, diabetes diagnosis, supplement usage, and laboratory HbA1c values), and when restricted to adults, the study cohort included 28,539 people. A total of 58.3% of people reported consuming a dietary supplement in the previous 30 d, 28.8% reported consuming a dietary supplement that contained chromium, and 0.7% consumed supplements that had "chromium" in the title. Compared with nonusers, the odds of having T2D (HbA1c ≥6.5%) were lower in persons who consumed chromium-containing supplements within the previous 30 d than in those who did not (OR: 0.73; 95% CI: 0.62, 0.86; P = 0.001). Supplement use alone (without chromium) did not influence the odds of having T2D (OR: 0.89; 95% CI: 0.77, 1.03; P = 0.11).

CONCLUSIONS

Over one-half the adult US population consumes nutritional supplements, and over one-quarter consumes supplemental chromium. The odds of having T2D were lower in those who, in the previous 30 d, had consumed supplements containing chromium. Given the magnitude of exposure, studies on safety and efficacy are warranted.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, MA; Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA; and david.mciver@childrens.harvard.edu.

    ,

    Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA; and Joslin Diabetes Center, Boston, MA.

    ,

    Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, MA; Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA; and.

    Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA; and Joslin Diabetes Center, Boston, MA.

    Source

    The Journal of nutrition 145:12 2015 Dec pg 2675-82

    MeSH

    Adolescent
    Adult
    Aged
    Chromium
    Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2
    Dietary Supplements
    Female
    Glycated Hemoglobin A
    Humans
    Male
    Middle Aged
    Nutrition Surveys
    Odds Ratio
    Risk Factors
    United States
    Young Adult

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    26446484

    Citation

    McIver, David J., et al. "Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Is Lower in US Adults Taking Chromium-Containing Supplements." The Journal of Nutrition, vol. 145, no. 12, 2015, pp. 2675-82.
    McIver DJ, Grizales AM, Brownstein JS, et al. Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Is Lower in US Adults Taking Chromium-Containing Supplements. J Nutr. 2015;145(12):2675-82.
    McIver, D. J., Grizales, A. M., Brownstein, J. S., & Goldfine, A. B. (2015). Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Is Lower in US Adults Taking Chromium-Containing Supplements. The Journal of Nutrition, 145(12), pp. 2675-82. doi:10.3945/jn.115.214569.
    McIver DJ, et al. Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Is Lower in US Adults Taking Chromium-Containing Supplements. J Nutr. 2015;145(12):2675-82. PubMed PMID: 26446484.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Is Lower in US Adults Taking Chromium-Containing Supplements. AU - McIver,David J, AU - Grizales,Ana Maria, AU - Brownstein,John S, AU - Goldfine,Allison B, Y1 - 2015/10/07/ PY - 2015/03/30/received PY - 2015/09/10/accepted PY - 2015/10/9/entrez PY - 2015/10/9/pubmed PY - 2016/3/29/medline KW - NHANES KW - chromium KW - diabetes KW - dietary supplements KW - glucose intolerance KW - insulin resistance KW - safety SP - 2675 EP - 82 JF - The Journal of nutrition JO - J. Nutr. VL - 145 IS - 12 N2 - BACKGROUND: Dietary supplement use is widespread in the United States. Although it has been suggested in both in vitro and small in vivo human studies that chromium has potentially beneficial effects in type 2 diabetes (T2D), chromium supplementation in diabetes has not been investigated at the population level. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to examine the use and potential benefits of chromium supplementation in T2D by examining NHANES data. METHODS: An individual was defined as having diabetes if he or she had a glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) value of ≥6.5%, or reported having been diagnosed with diabetes. Data on all consumed dietary supplements from the NHANES database were analyzed, with the OR of having diabetes as the main outcome of interest based on chromium supplement use. RESULTS: The NHANES for the years 1999-2010 included information on 62,160 individuals. After filtering the database for the required covariates (gender, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, body mass index, diabetes diagnosis, supplement usage, and laboratory HbA1c values), and when restricted to adults, the study cohort included 28,539 people. A total of 58.3% of people reported consuming a dietary supplement in the previous 30 d, 28.8% reported consuming a dietary supplement that contained chromium, and 0.7% consumed supplements that had "chromium" in the title. Compared with nonusers, the odds of having T2D (HbA1c ≥6.5%) were lower in persons who consumed chromium-containing supplements within the previous 30 d than in those who did not (OR: 0.73; 95% CI: 0.62, 0.86; P = 0.001). Supplement use alone (without chromium) did not influence the odds of having T2D (OR: 0.89; 95% CI: 0.77, 1.03; P = 0.11). CONCLUSIONS: Over one-half the adult US population consumes nutritional supplements, and over one-quarter consumes supplemental chromium. The odds of having T2D were lower in those who, in the previous 30 d, had consumed supplements containing chromium. Given the magnitude of exposure, studies on safety and efficacy are warranted. SN - 1541-6100 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/26446484/full_citation L2 - https://academic.oup.com/jn/article-lookup/doi/10.3945/jn.115.214569 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -