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Intakes of Lutein, Zeaxanthin, and Other Carotenoids and Age-Related Macular Degeneration During 2 Decades of Prospective Follow-up.

Abstract

IMPORTANCE

Despite strong biological plausibility, evidence from epidemiologic studies and clinical trials on the relations between intakes of lutein and zeaxanthin and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) has been inconsistent. The roles of other carotenoids are less thoroughly investigated.

OBJECTIVE

To investigate the associations between intakes of carotenoids and AMD.

DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS

Prospective cohort study, with cohorts from the Nurses' Health Study and the Health Professionals Follow-up Study in the United States. A total of 63,443 women and 38,603 men were followed up, from 1984 until May 31, 2010, in the Nurses' Health Study and from 1986 until January 31, 2010, in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. All participants were aged 50 years or older and were free of diagnosed AMD, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and cancer at baseline.

MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES

Predicted plasma carotenoid scores were computed directly from food intake, assessed by repeated food frequency questionnaires at baseline and follow-up, using validated regression models to account for bioavailability and reporting validity of different foods, and associations between predicted plasma carotenoid scores and AMD were determined.

RESULTS

We confirmed 1361 incident intermediate and 1118 advanced AMD cases (primarily neovascular AMD) with a visual acuity of 20/30 or worse by medical record review. Comparing extreme quintiles of predicted plasma lutein/zeaxanthin score, we found a risk reduction for advanced AMD of about 40% in both women and men (pooled relative risk comparing extreme quintiles = 0.59; 95% CI, 0.48-0.73; P for trend < .001). Predicted plasma carotenoid scores for other carotenoids, including β-cryptoxanthin, α-carotene, and β-carotene, were associated with a 25% to 35% lower risk of advanced AMD when comparing extreme quintiles. The relative risk comparing extreme quintiles for the predicted plasma total carotenoid index was 0.65 (95% CI, 0.53-0.80; P for trend < .001). We did not identify any associations of carotenoids, either as predicted plasma score or calculated intake, with intermediate AMD.

CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE

Higher intake of bioavailable lutein/zeaxanthin is associated with a long-term reduced risk of advanced AMD. Given that some other carotenoids are also associated with a lower risk, a public health strategy aimed at increasing dietary consumption of a wide variety of fruits and vegetables rich in carotenoids may reduce the incidence of advanced AMD.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Department of Nutrition, Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts.

    ,

    Department of Dermatology, Warren Alpert Medical School, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island3Department of Epidemiology, Brown School of Public Health, Providence, Rhode Island4Channing Division of Network Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham.

    ,

    Department of Nutrition, Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts4Channing Division of Network Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts5Department of Epidemiolog.

    ,

    Bethesda Retina, Bethesda, Maryland.

    Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts7Moran Center for Translational Medicine, John A. Moran Eye Center, Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt L.

    Source

    JAMA ophthalmology 133:12 2015 Dec pg 1415-24

    MeSH

    Adult
    Aged
    Antioxidants
    Carotenoids
    Feeding Behavior
    Female
    Follow-Up Studies
    Health Personnel
    Humans
    Incidence
    Lutein
    Macular Degeneration
    Male
    Middle Aged
    Nutrition Surveys
    Prospective Studies
    Risk Factors
    Surveys and Questionnaires
    United States
    Zeaxanthins

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    26447482

    Citation

    Wu, Juan, et al. "Intakes of Lutein, Zeaxanthin, and Other Carotenoids and Age-Related Macular Degeneration During 2 Decades of Prospective Follow-up." JAMA Ophthalmology, vol. 133, no. 12, 2015, pp. 1415-24.
    Wu J, Cho E, Willett WC, et al. Intakes of Lutein, Zeaxanthin, and Other Carotenoids and Age-Related Macular Degeneration During 2 Decades of Prospective Follow-up. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2015;133(12):1415-24.
    Wu, J., Cho, E., Willett, W. C., Sastry, S. M., & Schaumberg, D. A. (2015). Intakes of Lutein, Zeaxanthin, and Other Carotenoids and Age-Related Macular Degeneration During 2 Decades of Prospective Follow-up. JAMA Ophthalmology, 133(12), pp. 1415-24. doi:10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2015.3590.
    Wu J, et al. Intakes of Lutein, Zeaxanthin, and Other Carotenoids and Age-Related Macular Degeneration During 2 Decades of Prospective Follow-up. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2015;133(12):1415-24. PubMed PMID: 26447482.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Intakes of Lutein, Zeaxanthin, and Other Carotenoids and Age-Related Macular Degeneration During 2 Decades of Prospective Follow-up. AU - Wu,Juan, AU - Cho,Eunyoung, AU - Willett,Walter C, AU - Sastry,Srinivas M, AU - Schaumberg,Debra A, PY - 2015/10/9/entrez PY - 2015/10/9/pubmed PY - 2016/4/8/medline SP - 1415 EP - 24 JF - JAMA ophthalmology JO - JAMA Ophthalmol VL - 133 IS - 12 N2 - IMPORTANCE: Despite strong biological plausibility, evidence from epidemiologic studies and clinical trials on the relations between intakes of lutein and zeaxanthin and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) has been inconsistent. The roles of other carotenoids are less thoroughly investigated. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the associations between intakes of carotenoids and AMD. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Prospective cohort study, with cohorts from the Nurses' Health Study and the Health Professionals Follow-up Study in the United States. A total of 63,443 women and 38,603 men were followed up, from 1984 until May 31, 2010, in the Nurses' Health Study and from 1986 until January 31, 2010, in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. All participants were aged 50 years or older and were free of diagnosed AMD, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and cancer at baseline. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Predicted plasma carotenoid scores were computed directly from food intake, assessed by repeated food frequency questionnaires at baseline and follow-up, using validated regression models to account for bioavailability and reporting validity of different foods, and associations between predicted plasma carotenoid scores and AMD were determined. RESULTS: We confirmed 1361 incident intermediate and 1118 advanced AMD cases (primarily neovascular AMD) with a visual acuity of 20/30 or worse by medical record review. Comparing extreme quintiles of predicted plasma lutein/zeaxanthin score, we found a risk reduction for advanced AMD of about 40% in both women and men (pooled relative risk comparing extreme quintiles = 0.59; 95% CI, 0.48-0.73; P for trend < .001). Predicted plasma carotenoid scores for other carotenoids, including β-cryptoxanthin, α-carotene, and β-carotene, were associated with a 25% to 35% lower risk of advanced AMD when comparing extreme quintiles. The relative risk comparing extreme quintiles for the predicted plasma total carotenoid index was 0.65 (95% CI, 0.53-0.80; P for trend < .001). We did not identify any associations of carotenoids, either as predicted plasma score or calculated intake, with intermediate AMD. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Higher intake of bioavailable lutein/zeaxanthin is associated with a long-term reduced risk of advanced AMD. Given that some other carotenoids are also associated with a lower risk, a public health strategy aimed at increasing dietary consumption of a wide variety of fruits and vegetables rich in carotenoids may reduce the incidence of advanced AMD. SN - 2168-6173 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/26447482/Intakes_of_Lutein_Zeaxanthin_and_Other_Carotenoids_and_Age_Related_Macular_Degeneration_During_2_Decades_of_Prospective_Follow_up_ L2 - https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamaophthalmology/fullarticle/10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2015.3590 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -