Tags

Type your tag names separated by a space and hit enter

Determination of ketamine and its major metabolite, norketamine, in urine and plasma samples using microextraction by packed sorbent and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

Abstract

Ketamine is a club drug widely abused for its hallucinogenic effects, being also used as a "date-rape" drug in recent years. We have developed an analytical method using gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) for the identification and quantification of ketamine and its major metabolite in urine and plasma. No derivatization step is needed to accomplish analysis. The compounds were extracted from 0.25mL of sample using microextraction by packed sorbent on mixed mode (M1) cartridges. Calibration curves were linear in the range of 10-250ng/mL for urine and 10-500ng/mL for plasma, with determination coefficients higher than 0.99. The limit of detection (LOD) was 5ng/mL for both compounds in both specimens. Recoveries ranged from 63 to 101%, while precision and accuracy were below 14% and 15%, respectively. These low limits of detection and the quite high recoveries obtained, in very low sample amounts, allow detecting small quantities of the compounds, making this procedure suitable for those laboratories performing routine analysis in the field of forensic toxicology. Compared with existing methods, the herein described procedure is fast, since no derivatization step is required, and cost effective for the quantification of ketamine and norketamine in biological specimens by gas chromatography.

Authors+Show Affiliations

CICS-UBI-Centro de Investigação em Ciências da Saúde, Universidade da Beira Interior, Av. Infante D. Henrique, 6201-556 Covilhã, Portugal.Instituto Nacional de Medicina Legal e Ciências Forenses-Delegação do Sul, Rua Manuel Bento de Sousa, 3, 1169-201 Lisboa, Portugal.CICS-UBI-Centro de Investigação em Ciências da Saúde, Universidade da Beira Interior, Av. Infante D. Henrique, 6201-556 Covilhã, Portugal.Servicio de Toxicologia Forense-Instituto de Ciencias Forenses Luís Concheiro, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, San Francisco s/n, 15782 Santiago de Compostela, Spain.CICS-UBI-Centro de Investigação em Ciências da Saúde, Universidade da Beira Interior, Av. Infante D. Henrique, 6201-556 Covilhã, Portugal. Electronic address: egallardo@fcsaude.ubi.pt.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Validation Study

Language

eng

PubMed ID

26447937

Citation

Moreno, Ivo, et al. "Determination of Ketamine and Its Major Metabolite, Norketamine, in Urine and Plasma Samples Using Microextraction By Packed Sorbent and Gas Chromatography-tandem Mass Spectrometry." Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences, vol. 1004, 2015, pp. 67-78.
Moreno I, Barroso M, Martinho A, et al. Determination of ketamine and its major metabolite, norketamine, in urine and plasma samples using microextraction by packed sorbent and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2015;1004:67-78.
Moreno, I., Barroso, M., Martinho, A., Cruz, A., & Gallardo, E. (2015). Determination of ketamine and its major metabolite, norketamine, in urine and plasma samples using microextraction by packed sorbent and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences, 1004, 67-78. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jchromb.2015.09.032
Moreno I, et al. Determination of Ketamine and Its Major Metabolite, Norketamine, in Urine and Plasma Samples Using Microextraction By Packed Sorbent and Gas Chromatography-tandem Mass Spectrometry. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2015 Nov 1;1004:67-78. PubMed PMID: 26447937.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Determination of ketamine and its major metabolite, norketamine, in urine and plasma samples using microextraction by packed sorbent and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. AU - Moreno,Ivo, AU - Barroso,Mário, AU - Martinho,Ana, AU - Cruz,Angelines, AU - Gallardo,Eugenia, Y1 - 2015/09/30/ PY - 2015/05/22/received PY - 2015/09/16/revised PY - 2015/09/20/accepted PY - 2015/10/9/entrez PY - 2015/10/9/pubmed PY - 2016/5/14/medline KW - Biological samples KW - GC–MS/MS KW - Ketamine KW - MEPS KW - Norketamine SP - 67 EP - 78 JF - Journal of chromatography. B, Analytical technologies in the biomedical and life sciences JO - J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci VL - 1004 N2 - Ketamine is a club drug widely abused for its hallucinogenic effects, being also used as a "date-rape" drug in recent years. We have developed an analytical method using gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) for the identification and quantification of ketamine and its major metabolite in urine and plasma. No derivatization step is needed to accomplish analysis. The compounds were extracted from 0.25mL of sample using microextraction by packed sorbent on mixed mode (M1) cartridges. Calibration curves were linear in the range of 10-250ng/mL for urine and 10-500ng/mL for plasma, with determination coefficients higher than 0.99. The limit of detection (LOD) was 5ng/mL for both compounds in both specimens. Recoveries ranged from 63 to 101%, while precision and accuracy were below 14% and 15%, respectively. These low limits of detection and the quite high recoveries obtained, in very low sample amounts, allow detecting small quantities of the compounds, making this procedure suitable for those laboratories performing routine analysis in the field of forensic toxicology. Compared with existing methods, the herein described procedure is fast, since no derivatization step is required, and cost effective for the quantification of ketamine and norketamine in biological specimens by gas chromatography. SN - 1873-376X UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/26447937/Determination_of_ketamine_and_its_major_metabolite_norketamine_in_urine_and_plasma_samples_using_microextraction_by_packed_sorbent_and_gas_chromatography_tandem_mass_spectrometry_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1570-0232(15)30208-7 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -