Plasma Vitamin D Level and Change in Albuminuria and eGFR According to Sodium Intake.Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2015 Dec 07; 10(12):2119-27.CJ
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES
Low circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and high sodium intake are both associated with progressive albuminuria and renal function loss in CKD. Both vitamin D and sodium intake interact with the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. We investigated whether plasma 25(OH)D or 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2D] is associated with developing increased albuminuria or reduced renal function and whether these associations depend on sodium intake.
DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS
Baseline plasma 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)2D were measured by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, and sodium intake was assessed by 24-hour urine collections in the general population-based Prevention of Renal and Vascular End-Stage Disease cohort (n=5051). Two primary outcomes were development of urinary albumin excretion >30 mg/24 h and eGFR (creatinine/cystatin C-based CKD Epidemiology Collaboration) <60 ml/min per 1.73 m(2). Participants with CKD at baseline were excluded. In Cox regression analyses, we assessed associations of vitamin D with developing increased albuminuria or reduced eGFR and potential interaction with sodium intake.
During a median follow-up of 10.4 (6.2-11.4) years, 641 (13%) participants developed increased albuminuria, and 268 (5%) participants developed reduced eGFR. Plasma 25(OH)D was inversely associated with increased albuminuria (fully adjusted hazard ratio [HR] per SD higher, 0.86; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.78 to 0.95; P=0.003) but not reduced eGFR (HR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.87 to 1.12; P=0.85). There was interaction between 25(OH)D and sodium intake for risk of developing increased albuminuria (P interaction =0.03). In participants with high sodium intake, risk of developing increased albuminuria was inversely associated with 25(OH)D (lowest versus highest quartile: adjusted HR, 1.81; 95% CI, 1.20 to 2.73, P<0.01), whereas this association was nonsignificant in participants with low sodium intake (HR, 1.29; 95% CI, 0.94 to 1.77; P=0.12). Plasma 1,25(OH)2D was not significantly associated with increased albuminuria or reduced eGFR.
Low plasma 25(OH)D is associated with higher risk of developing increased albuminuria, particularly in individuals with high sodium intake, but not of developing reduced eGFR. Plasma 1,25(OH)2D is not associated with risk of developing increased albuminuria or reduced eGFR.