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Default mode network abnormalities during state switching in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.
Psychol Med. 2016 Feb; 46(3):519-28.PM

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Individuals with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) display excess levels of default mode network (DMN) activity during goal-directed tasks, which are associated with attentional disturbances and performance decrements. One hypothesis is that this is due to attenuated down-regulation of this network during rest-to-task switching. A second related hypothesis is that it may be associated with right anterior insula (rAI) dysfunction - a region thought to control the actual state-switching process.

METHOD

These hypotheses were tested in the current fMRI study in which 19 adults with ADHD and 21 typically developing controls undertook a novel state-to-state switching paradigm. Advance cues signalled upcoming switches between rest and task periods and switch-related anticipatory modulation of DMN and rAI was measured. To examine whether rest-to-task switching impairments may be a specific example of a more general state regulation deficit, activity upon task-to-rest cues was also analysed.

RESULTS

Against our hypotheses, we found that the process of down-regulating the DMN when preparing to switch from rest to task was unimpaired in ADHD and that there was no switch-specific deficit in rAI modulation. However, individuals with ADHD showed difficulties up-regulating the DMN when switching from task to rest.

CONCLUSIONS

Rest-to-task DMN attenuation seems to be intact in adults with ADHD and thus appears unrelated to excess DMN activity observed during tasks. Instead, individuals with ADHD exhibit attenuated up-regulation of the DMN, hence suggesting disturbed re-initiation of a rest state.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Experimental-Clinical and Health Psychology,Ghent University,Ghent,Belgium.Department of Experimental-Clinical and Health Psychology,Ghent University,Ghent,Belgium.Department of Experimental-Clinical and Health Psychology,Ghent University,Ghent,Belgium.Department of Experimental-Clinical and Health Psychology,Ghent University,Ghent,Belgium.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

26456561

Citation

Sidlauskaite, J, et al. "Default Mode Network Abnormalities During State Switching in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder." Psychological Medicine, vol. 46, no. 3, 2016, pp. 519-28.
Sidlauskaite J, Sonuga-Barke E, Roeyers H, et al. Default mode network abnormalities during state switching in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Psychol Med. 2016;46(3):519-28.
Sidlauskaite, J., Sonuga-Barke, E., Roeyers, H., & Wiersema, J. R. (2016). Default mode network abnormalities during state switching in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Psychological Medicine, 46(3), 519-28. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0033291715002019
Sidlauskaite J, et al. Default Mode Network Abnormalities During State Switching in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Psychol Med. 2016;46(3):519-28. PubMed PMID: 26456561.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Default mode network abnormalities during state switching in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. AU - Sidlauskaite,J, AU - Sonuga-Barke,E, AU - Roeyers,H, AU - Wiersema,J R, Y1 - 2015/10/12/ PY - 2015/10/13/entrez PY - 2015/10/13/pubmed PY - 2016/9/28/medline KW - Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder KW - default mode network KW - insula KW - state switching SP - 519 EP - 28 JF - Psychological medicine JO - Psychol Med VL - 46 IS - 3 N2 - BACKGROUND: Individuals with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) display excess levels of default mode network (DMN) activity during goal-directed tasks, which are associated with attentional disturbances and performance decrements. One hypothesis is that this is due to attenuated down-regulation of this network during rest-to-task switching. A second related hypothesis is that it may be associated with right anterior insula (rAI) dysfunction - a region thought to control the actual state-switching process. METHOD: These hypotheses were tested in the current fMRI study in which 19 adults with ADHD and 21 typically developing controls undertook a novel state-to-state switching paradigm. Advance cues signalled upcoming switches between rest and task periods and switch-related anticipatory modulation of DMN and rAI was measured. To examine whether rest-to-task switching impairments may be a specific example of a more general state regulation deficit, activity upon task-to-rest cues was also analysed. RESULTS: Against our hypotheses, we found that the process of down-regulating the DMN when preparing to switch from rest to task was unimpaired in ADHD and that there was no switch-specific deficit in rAI modulation. However, individuals with ADHD showed difficulties up-regulating the DMN when switching from task to rest. CONCLUSIONS: Rest-to-task DMN attenuation seems to be intact in adults with ADHD and thus appears unrelated to excess DMN activity observed during tasks. Instead, individuals with ADHD exhibit attenuated up-regulation of the DMN, hence suggesting disturbed re-initiation of a rest state. SN - 1469-8978 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/26456561/Default_mode_network_abnormalities_during_state_switching_in_attention_deficit_hyperactivity_disorder_ L2 - https://www.cambridge.org/core/product/identifier/S0033291715002019/type/journal_article DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -