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The hyporeactivity of salivary cortisol at stress test (TSST-C) in children with internalizing or externalizing disorders is contrastively associated with α-amylase.
J Psychiatr Res. 2015 Dec; 71:78-88.JP

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Stress biomarkers of the autonomic nervous system and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA-axis) can be measured via alpha-amylase (AA) and cortisol and cortisone in saliva. Objectives were to determine 1) the response patterns of cortisol, cortisone, and AA under both circadian conditions and the Trier Social Stress Test for Children (TSST-C), 2) which reactivity index is most suitable to differentiate internalizing or externalizing disorders from controls, and to explore 3) the interaction between AA and cortisol in the presence of internalizing or externalizing disorders.

METHODS

Saliva samples (n = 2893) from children with internalizing (n = 55) or externalizing disorders (n = 33) and healthy children (n = 81) were analyzed for cortisol, cortisone, and AA under circadian conditions and TSST-C.

RESULTS

Circadian rhythm of three biomarkers did not differ between diagnostic groups. Age and gender were significant predictors for cortisol and awakening time influenced all three biomarkers significantly. TSST-C responses appeared sequentially in the order of AA, cortisol, and cortisone. Trajectories of cortisol and cortisone responses, not in AA, were significantly lower in children with internalizing or externalizing disorders than in healthy children. Cortisol percentage increase appeared to be the most suitable reactivity index to detect the difference between the diagnostic groups. Internalizing disorders had a negative association between AA decrease and cortisol increase (β = -.199, p < .05, R(2) = .304). Externalizing disorders had a positive association between AA baseline and cortisol increase (β = .229, p < .05, R(2) = .304).

CONCLUSION

An altered HPA-axis response during stress might result from chronic allostatic load in internalizing disorders and underaroused stress response system in externalizing disorders.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Institute of Laboratory Medicine, Clinical Chemistry and Molecular Diagnostics, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany. Electronic address: Yoonju.Bae@medizin.uni-leipzig.de.Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany; LIFE - Leipzig Research Center for Civilization Diseases, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany. Electronic address: sstadelmann@life.uni-leipzig.de.Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany. Electronic address: Annette.Klein@medizin.uni-leipzig.de.LIFE - Leipzig Research Center for Civilization Diseases, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany. Electronic address: sjaeger@life.uni-leipzig.de.LIFE - Leipzig Research Center for Civilization Diseases, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany; Hospital for Children and Adolescents and Center for Pediatric Research, University Hospital, University of Leipzig, Germany. Electronic address: ahiemisch@life.uni-leipzig.de.Hospital for Children and Adolescents and Center for Pediatric Research, University Hospital, University of Leipzig, Germany. Electronic address: Wieland.Kiess@medizin.uni-leipzig.de.Institute of Laboratory Medicine, Clinical Chemistry and Molecular Diagnostics, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany. Electronic address: Uta.Ceglarek@medizin.uni-leipzig.de.Institute of Laboratory Medicine, Clinical Chemistry and Molecular Diagnostics, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany. Electronic address: Alexander.Gaudl@medizin.uni-leipzig.de.Institute of Laboratory Medicine, Clinical Chemistry and Molecular Diagnostics, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany. Electronic address: Michael.Schaab@medizin.uni-leipzig.de.Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany. Electronic address: Kai.Klitzing@medizin.uni-leipzig.de.Institute of Laboratory Medicine, Clinical Chemistry and Molecular Diagnostics, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany; LIFE - Leipzig Research Center for Civilization Diseases, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany. Electronic address: Joachim.Thiery@medizin.uni-leipzig.de.Institute of Laboratory Medicine, Clinical Chemistry and Molecular Diagnostics, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany. Electronic address: Juergen.Kratzsch@medizin.uni-leipzig.de.Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany. Electronic address: Mirko.Doehnert@medizin.uni-leipzig.de.

Pub Type(s)

Comparative Study
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

26462206

Citation

Bae, Yoon Ju, et al. "The Hyporeactivity of Salivary Cortisol at Stress Test (TSST-C) in Children With Internalizing or Externalizing Disorders Is Contrastively Associated With Α-amylase." Journal of Psychiatric Research, vol. 71, 2015, pp. 78-88.
Bae YJ, Stadelmann S, Klein AM, et al. The hyporeactivity of salivary cortisol at stress test (TSST-C) in children with internalizing or externalizing disorders is contrastively associated with α-amylase. J Psychiatr Res. 2015;71:78-88.
Bae, Y. J., Stadelmann, S., Klein, A. M., Jaeger, S., Hiemisch, A., Kiess, W., Ceglarek, U., Gaudl, A., Schaab, M., von Klitzing, K., Thiery, J., Kratzsch, J., & Döhnert, M. (2015). The hyporeactivity of salivary cortisol at stress test (TSST-C) in children with internalizing or externalizing disorders is contrastively associated with α-amylase. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 71, 78-88. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychires.2015.09.013
Bae YJ, et al. The Hyporeactivity of Salivary Cortisol at Stress Test (TSST-C) in Children With Internalizing or Externalizing Disorders Is Contrastively Associated With Α-amylase. J Psychiatr Res. 2015;71:78-88. PubMed PMID: 26462206.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - The hyporeactivity of salivary cortisol at stress test (TSST-C) in children with internalizing or externalizing disorders is contrastively associated with α-amylase. AU - Bae,Yoon Ju, AU - Stadelmann,Stephanie, AU - Klein,Annette Maria, AU - Jaeger,Sonia, AU - Hiemisch,Andreas, AU - Kiess,Wieland, AU - Ceglarek,Uta, AU - Gaudl,Alexander, AU - Schaab,Michael, AU - von Klitzing,Kai, AU - Thiery,Joachim, AU - Kratzsch,Juergen, AU - Döhnert,Mirko, Y1 - 2015/09/30/ PY - 2015/01/14/received PY - 2015/09/22/revised PY - 2015/09/25/accepted PY - 2015/10/14/entrez PY - 2015/10/16/pubmed PY - 2016/8/11/medline KW - Alpha-amylase KW - Circadian rhythm KW - Cortisone KW - Psychiatric disorders KW - Salivary cortisol KW - Trier social stress test for children (TSST-C) SP - 78 EP - 88 JF - Journal of psychiatric research JO - J Psychiatr Res VL - 71 N2 - BACKGROUND: Stress biomarkers of the autonomic nervous system and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA-axis) can be measured via alpha-amylase (AA) and cortisol and cortisone in saliva. Objectives were to determine 1) the response patterns of cortisol, cortisone, and AA under both circadian conditions and the Trier Social Stress Test for Children (TSST-C), 2) which reactivity index is most suitable to differentiate internalizing or externalizing disorders from controls, and to explore 3) the interaction between AA and cortisol in the presence of internalizing or externalizing disorders. METHODS: Saliva samples (n = 2893) from children with internalizing (n = 55) or externalizing disorders (n = 33) and healthy children (n = 81) were analyzed for cortisol, cortisone, and AA under circadian conditions and TSST-C. RESULTS: Circadian rhythm of three biomarkers did not differ between diagnostic groups. Age and gender were significant predictors for cortisol and awakening time influenced all three biomarkers significantly. TSST-C responses appeared sequentially in the order of AA, cortisol, and cortisone. Trajectories of cortisol and cortisone responses, not in AA, were significantly lower in children with internalizing or externalizing disorders than in healthy children. Cortisol percentage increase appeared to be the most suitable reactivity index to detect the difference between the diagnostic groups. Internalizing disorders had a negative association between AA decrease and cortisol increase (β = -.199, p < .05, R(2) = .304). Externalizing disorders had a positive association between AA baseline and cortisol increase (β = .229, p < .05, R(2) = .304). CONCLUSION: An altered HPA-axis response during stress might result from chronic allostatic load in internalizing disorders and underaroused stress response system in externalizing disorders. SN - 1879-1379 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/26462206/The_hyporeactivity_of_salivary_cortisol_at_stress_test__TSST_C__in_children_with_internalizing_or_externalizing_disorders_is_contrastively_associated_with_α_amylase_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0022-3956(15)00274-5 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -