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Omega-3 fatty acids: Mechanisms of benefit and therapeutic effects in pediatric and adult NAFLD.
Crit Rev Clin Lab Sci 2016; 53(2):106-20CR

Abstract

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is currently considered the most common liver disease in industrialized countries, and it is estimated that it will become the most frequent indication for liver transplantation in the next decade. NAFLD may be associated with moderate (i.e. steatosis) to severe (i.e. steatohepatitis and fibrosis) liver damage and affects all age groups. Furthermore, subjects with NAFLD may be at a greater risk of other obesity-related complications later in life, and people with obesity and obesity-related complications (e.g. metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease) are at increased risk of developing NAFLD. To date, there is no licensed treatment for NAFLD and therapy has been mainly centered on weight loss and increased physical activity. Unfortunately, it is often difficult for patients to adhere to the advised lifestyle changes. Therefore, based on the known pathogenesis of NAFLD, several clinical trials with different nutritional supplementation and prescribed drugs have been undertaken or are currently underway. Experimental evidence has emerged about the health benefits of omega-3 fatty acids, a group of polyunsaturated fatty acids that are important for a number of health-related functions. Omega-3 fatty acids are present in some foods (oils, nuts and seeds) that also contain omega-6 fatty acids, and the best sources of exclusively omega-3 fatty acids are oily fish, krill oil and algae. In this review, we provide a brief overview of the pathogenesis of NAFLD, and we also discuss the molecular and clinical evidence for the benefits of different omega-3 fatty acid preparations in NAFLD.

Authors+Show Affiliations

a Hepato-Metabolic Disease Unit and.b Liver Research Unit, "Bambino Gesù" Children's Hospital and IRCCS , Rome , Italy .c Gradenigo Hospital, University of Turin , Turin , Italy .d Human Development and Health Academic Unit, Faculty of Medicine, University of Southampton , Southampton , UK , and. e National Institute for Health Research Southampton Biomedical Research Centre, University Hospital Southampton NHS Foundation Trust, University of Southampton , Southampton , UK.d Human Development and Health Academic Unit, Faculty of Medicine, University of Southampton , Southampton , UK , and. e National Institute for Health Research Southampton Biomedical Research Centre, University Hospital Southampton NHS Foundation Trust, University of Southampton , Southampton , UK.d Human Development and Health Academic Unit, Faculty of Medicine, University of Southampton , Southampton , UK , and. e National Institute for Health Research Southampton Biomedical Research Centre, University Hospital Southampton NHS Foundation Trust, University of Southampton , Southampton , UK.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

26463349

Citation

Nobili, Valerio, et al. "Omega-3 Fatty Acids: Mechanisms of Benefit and Therapeutic Effects in Pediatric and Adult NAFLD." Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences, vol. 53, no. 2, 2016, pp. 106-20.
Nobili V, Alisi A, Musso G, et al. Omega-3 fatty acids: Mechanisms of benefit and therapeutic effects in pediatric and adult NAFLD. Crit Rev Clin Lab Sci. 2016;53(2):106-20.
Nobili, V., Alisi, A., Musso, G., Scorletti, E., Calder, P. C., & Byrne, C. D. (2016). Omega-3 fatty acids: Mechanisms of benefit and therapeutic effects in pediatric and adult NAFLD. Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences, 53(2), pp. 106-20. doi:10.3109/10408363.2015.1092106.
Nobili V, et al. Omega-3 Fatty Acids: Mechanisms of Benefit and Therapeutic Effects in Pediatric and Adult NAFLD. Crit Rev Clin Lab Sci. 2016;53(2):106-20. PubMed PMID: 26463349.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Omega-3 fatty acids: Mechanisms of benefit and therapeutic effects in pediatric and adult NAFLD. AU - Nobili,Valerio, AU - Alisi,Anna, AU - Musso,Giovanni, AU - Scorletti,Eleonora, AU - Calder,Philip C, AU - Byrne,Christopher D, Y1 - 2015/10/14/ PY - 2015/10/15/entrez PY - 2015/10/16/pubmed PY - 2016/11/8/medline KW - Docosahexaenoic acid KW - eicosapentaenoic acid KW - non-alcoholic fatty liver disease KW - non-alcoholic steatohepatitis KW - omega-3 SP - 106 EP - 20 JF - Critical reviews in clinical laboratory sciences JO - Crit Rev Clin Lab Sci VL - 53 IS - 2 N2 - Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is currently considered the most common liver disease in industrialized countries, and it is estimated that it will become the most frequent indication for liver transplantation in the next decade. NAFLD may be associated with moderate (i.e. steatosis) to severe (i.e. steatohepatitis and fibrosis) liver damage and affects all age groups. Furthermore, subjects with NAFLD may be at a greater risk of other obesity-related complications later in life, and people with obesity and obesity-related complications (e.g. metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease) are at increased risk of developing NAFLD. To date, there is no licensed treatment for NAFLD and therapy has been mainly centered on weight loss and increased physical activity. Unfortunately, it is often difficult for patients to adhere to the advised lifestyle changes. Therefore, based on the known pathogenesis of NAFLD, several clinical trials with different nutritional supplementation and prescribed drugs have been undertaken or are currently underway. Experimental evidence has emerged about the health benefits of omega-3 fatty acids, a group of polyunsaturated fatty acids that are important for a number of health-related functions. Omega-3 fatty acids are present in some foods (oils, nuts and seeds) that also contain omega-6 fatty acids, and the best sources of exclusively omega-3 fatty acids are oily fish, krill oil and algae. In this review, we provide a brief overview of the pathogenesis of NAFLD, and we also discuss the molecular and clinical evidence for the benefits of different omega-3 fatty acid preparations in NAFLD. SN - 1549-781X UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/26463349/Omega_3_fatty_acids:_Mechanisms_of_benefit_and_therapeutic_effects_in_pediatric_and_adult_NAFLD_ L2 - http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.3109/10408363.2015.1092106 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -