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Eating Frequency Is Positively Associated with Overweight and Central Obesity in U.S. Adults.
J Nutr. 2015 Dec; 145(12):2715-24.JN

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Evidence of the association between eating frequency (EF) and adiposity is inconsistent.

OBJECTIVE

With the use of data from the NHANES 2003-2012, this cross-sectional study examined the associations between EF, meal frequency (MF), and snack frequency (SF) and overweight/obesity and central obesity.

METHODS

Dietary intake was assessed with the use of two 24-h dietary recalls in 18,696 US adults ≥20 y of age. All eating occasions providing ≥50 kcal of energy were divided into meals or snacks on the basis of contribution to energy intake (≥15% or <15%), self-report, and time (0600-1000, 1200-1500, 1800-2100, or other). Multivariable logistic regression was used to compute ORs and 95% CIs.

RESULTS

When analyzed without adjustment for the ratio of energy intake to estimated energy requirement (EI:EER), all measures of EF, MF, and SF showed inverse or null associations. After adjustment for EI:EER, however, EF was positively associated with overweight/obesity (body mass index ≥25 kg/m2) and central obesity (waist circumference ≥102 cm in men and ≥88 cm in women). Compared with the lowest category (≤3 times/d), the OR (95% CI) for overweight/obesity in the highest category (≥5 times/d) was 1.54 (1.23, 1.93) in men (P-trend = 0.003) and 1.45 (1.17, 1.81) in women (P-trend = 0.001). The corresponding value for central obesity was 1.42 (1.15, 1.75) in men (P-trend = 0.002) and 1.29 (1.05, 1.59) in women (P-trend = 0.03). The self-report-based MF and time-based MF were positively associated with overweight/obesity, central obesity, or both, although MF based on energy contribution showed no associations. There were positive associations for all SF measures in men and for the energy-contribution-based SF in women.

CONCLUSIONS

This cross-sectional study suggests that higher EF, MF, and SF are associated with an increased likelihood of overweight/obesity and central obesity in US adults. Prospective studies are needed to confirm the associations observed in this study.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Nutrition, School of Human Cultures, University of Shiga Prefecture, Shiga, Japan; and kenmrkm@m.u-tokyo.ac.jp.Northern Ireland Centre for Food and Health, Ulster University, Coleraine, United Kingdom.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

26468490

Citation

Murakami, Kentaro, and M Barbara E. Livingstone. "Eating Frequency Is Positively Associated With Overweight and Central Obesity in U.S. Adults." The Journal of Nutrition, vol. 145, no. 12, 2015, pp. 2715-24.
Murakami K, Livingstone MB. Eating Frequency Is Positively Associated with Overweight and Central Obesity in U.S. Adults. J Nutr. 2015;145(12):2715-24.
Murakami, K., & Livingstone, M. B. (2015). Eating Frequency Is Positively Associated with Overweight and Central Obesity in U.S. Adults. The Journal of Nutrition, 145(12), 2715-24. https://doi.org/10.3945/jn.115.219808
Murakami K, Livingstone MB. Eating Frequency Is Positively Associated With Overweight and Central Obesity in U.S. Adults. J Nutr. 2015;145(12):2715-24. PubMed PMID: 26468490.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Eating Frequency Is Positively Associated with Overweight and Central Obesity in U.S. Adults. AU - Murakami,Kentaro, AU - Livingstone,M Barbara E, Y1 - 2015/10/14/ PY - 2015/07/01/received PY - 2015/09/11/accepted PY - 2015/10/16/entrez PY - 2015/10/16/pubmed PY - 2016/3/29/medline KW - NHANES KW - body mass index KW - eating frequency KW - epidemiology KW - meal frequency KW - misreporting KW - snack frequency KW - waist circumference SP - 2715 EP - 24 JF - The Journal of nutrition JO - J Nutr VL - 145 IS - 12 N2 - BACKGROUND: Evidence of the association between eating frequency (EF) and adiposity is inconsistent. OBJECTIVE: With the use of data from the NHANES 2003-2012, this cross-sectional study examined the associations between EF, meal frequency (MF), and snack frequency (SF) and overweight/obesity and central obesity. METHODS: Dietary intake was assessed with the use of two 24-h dietary recalls in 18,696 US adults ≥20 y of age. All eating occasions providing ≥50 kcal of energy were divided into meals or snacks on the basis of contribution to energy intake (≥15% or <15%), self-report, and time (0600-1000, 1200-1500, 1800-2100, or other). Multivariable logistic regression was used to compute ORs and 95% CIs. RESULTS: When analyzed without adjustment for the ratio of energy intake to estimated energy requirement (EI:EER), all measures of EF, MF, and SF showed inverse or null associations. After adjustment for EI:EER, however, EF was positively associated with overweight/obesity (body mass index ≥25 kg/m2) and central obesity (waist circumference ≥102 cm in men and ≥88 cm in women). Compared with the lowest category (≤3 times/d), the OR (95% CI) for overweight/obesity in the highest category (≥5 times/d) was 1.54 (1.23, 1.93) in men (P-trend = 0.003) and 1.45 (1.17, 1.81) in women (P-trend = 0.001). The corresponding value for central obesity was 1.42 (1.15, 1.75) in men (P-trend = 0.002) and 1.29 (1.05, 1.59) in women (P-trend = 0.03). The self-report-based MF and time-based MF were positively associated with overweight/obesity, central obesity, or both, although MF based on energy contribution showed no associations. There were positive associations for all SF measures in men and for the energy-contribution-based SF in women. CONCLUSIONS: This cross-sectional study suggests that higher EF, MF, and SF are associated with an increased likelihood of overweight/obesity and central obesity in US adults. Prospective studies are needed to confirm the associations observed in this study. SN - 1541-6100 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/26468490/Eating_Frequency_Is_Positively_Associated_with_Overweight_and_Central_Obesity_in_U_S__Adults_ L2 - https://academic.oup.com/jn/article-lookup/doi/10.3945/jn.115.219808 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -