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Associations between meal and snack frequency and diet quality and adiposity measures in British adults: findings from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey.
Public Health Nutr. 2016 06; 19(9):1624-34.PH

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To examine how different definitions of meals and snacks can affect the associations of meal frequency (MF) and snack frequency (SF) with dietary intake and adiposity measures.

DESIGN

Based on 7 d weighed dietary record data, all eating occasions providing ≥210 kJ of energy were divided into meals or snacks based on contribution to energy intake (≥15 % or <15 %) or time (06.00-10.00, 12.00-15.00 and 18.00-21.00 hours; other). Diet quality was assessed using the Healthy Diet Indicator (HDI) and Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS).

SETTING

Great Britain.

SUBJECTS

British adults aged 19-64 years (n 1487).

RESULTS

MF based on energy contribution was associated with higher intake of dietary fibre, lower intakes of non-milk extrinsic sugars and alcohol, and higher HDI (only men) and MDS. MF based on time was associated with higher HDI and MDS in women only. Conversely, irrespective of the definition of snacks, SF was associated with higher intakes of confectionery and alcohol, lower intakes of cereals, protein, fat and dietary fibre, and lower HDI (except for SF based on energy contribution in women) and MDS. After adjustment for potential confounders, MF based on time, but not MF based on energy contribution, was positively associated with BMI and waist circumference in men only. SF was positively associated with BMI and waist circumference, irrespective of the definition of snacks.

CONCLUSIONS

Higher SF was consistently associated with lower diet quality and higher adiposity measures, while associations with MF varied depending on the definition of meals and sex.

Authors+Show Affiliations

1Department of Nutrition,School of Human Cultures,University of Shiga Prefecture,Hikone,Shiga 522 8533,Japan.2Northern Ireland Centre for Food and Health,Ulster University,Coleraine,UK.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

26471309

Citation

Murakami, Kentaro, and M Barbara E. Livingstone. "Associations Between Meal and Snack Frequency and Diet Quality and Adiposity Measures in British Adults: Findings From the National Diet and Nutrition Survey." Public Health Nutrition, vol. 19, no. 9, 2016, pp. 1624-34.
Murakami K, Livingstone MB. Associations between meal and snack frequency and diet quality and adiposity measures in British adults: findings from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey. Public Health Nutr. 2016;19(9):1624-34.
Murakami, K., & Livingstone, M. B. (2016). Associations between meal and snack frequency and diet quality and adiposity measures in British adults: findings from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey. Public Health Nutrition, 19(9), 1624-34. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1368980015002979
Murakami K, Livingstone MB. Associations Between Meal and Snack Frequency and Diet Quality and Adiposity Measures in British Adults: Findings From the National Diet and Nutrition Survey. Public Health Nutr. 2016;19(9):1624-34. PubMed PMID: 26471309.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Associations between meal and snack frequency and diet quality and adiposity measures in British adults: findings from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey. AU - Murakami,Kentaro, AU - Livingstone,M Barbara E, Y1 - 2015/10/16/ PY - 2015/10/17/entrez PY - 2015/10/17/pubmed PY - 2018/3/20/medline KW - Diet quality KW - Meal frequency KW - Obesity KW - Snack frequency SP - 1624 EP - 34 JF - Public health nutrition JO - Public Health Nutr VL - 19 IS - 9 N2 - OBJECTIVE: To examine how different definitions of meals and snacks can affect the associations of meal frequency (MF) and snack frequency (SF) with dietary intake and adiposity measures. DESIGN: Based on 7 d weighed dietary record data, all eating occasions providing ≥210 kJ of energy were divided into meals or snacks based on contribution to energy intake (≥15 % or <15 %) or time (06.00-10.00, 12.00-15.00 and 18.00-21.00 hours; other). Diet quality was assessed using the Healthy Diet Indicator (HDI) and Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS). SETTING: Great Britain. SUBJECTS: British adults aged 19-64 years (n 1487). RESULTS: MF based on energy contribution was associated with higher intake of dietary fibre, lower intakes of non-milk extrinsic sugars and alcohol, and higher HDI (only men) and MDS. MF based on time was associated with higher HDI and MDS in women only. Conversely, irrespective of the definition of snacks, SF was associated with higher intakes of confectionery and alcohol, lower intakes of cereals, protein, fat and dietary fibre, and lower HDI (except for SF based on energy contribution in women) and MDS. After adjustment for potential confounders, MF based on time, but not MF based on energy contribution, was positively associated with BMI and waist circumference in men only. SF was positively associated with BMI and waist circumference, irrespective of the definition of snacks. CONCLUSIONS: Higher SF was consistently associated with lower diet quality and higher adiposity measures, while associations with MF varied depending on the definition of meals and sex. SN - 1475-2727 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/26471309/Associations_between_meal_and_snack_frequency_and_diet_quality_and_adiposity_measures_in_British_adults:_findings_from_the_National_Diet_and_Nutrition_Survey_ L2 - https://www.cambridge.org/core/product/identifier/S1368980015002979/type/journal_article DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -