Extraction optimization of medicinally important metabolites from Datura innoxia Mill.: an in vitro biological and phytochemical investigation.BMC Complement Altern Med. 2015 Oct 19; 15:376.BC
The present study aims to probe the impact of polarity dependent extraction efficiency variation on pharmacological spectrum of Datura innoxia Mill. in order to reconnoiter its underexplored therapeutic potential.
A range of solvent extracts was subjected to phytochemical and biological assays to find the most proficient solvent system and plant part for each type of bioactivity. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were determined colorimetrically and specific polyphenols were quantified by HPLC-DAD analysis. The samples were biologically evaluated by employing multimode antioxidant, cytotoxic, protein kinase inhibition and antimicrobial assays.
Among all the solvents used, maximum percent extract recovery (33.28 %) was obtained in aqueous leaf extract. The highest amount of gallic acid equivalent phenolic and quercetin equivalent flavonoid content was obtained in the distilled water and ethyl acetate-ethanol extracts of leaf i.e., 29.91 ± 0.12 and 15.68 ± 0.18 mg/g dry weight (DW) respectively. Reverse phase HPLC-DAD based quantification revealed the presence of significant amounts of catechin, caffiec acid, apigenin and rutin ranging from 0.16 to 5.41 mg/g DW. Highest DPPH radical scavenging activity (IC50 = 16.14 μg/ml) was displayed by the ethyl acetate-acetone stem extract. Maximum total antioxidant capacity and reducing power potential were recorded in the aqueous leaf and ethyl acetate stem extracts i.e., 46.98 ± 0.24 and 15.35 ± 0.61 mg ascorbic acid equivalent/g DW respectively. Cytotoxicity against brine shrimps categorized 25 % of the leaf, 16 % of the stem and 8.3 % of the fruit extracts as highly potent (LC50 ≤ 100 μg/ml). Significant cytotoxicity against human leukemia (THP-1) cell line was exhibited by the chloroform and n-hexane fruit extracts with IC50 4.52 and 3.49 μg/ml respectively. Ethyl acetate and methanol-chloroform extracts of leaf and stem exhibited conspicuous protein kinase inhibitory activity against Streptomyces 85E strain with 22 mm bald phenotype. A noteworthy antimicrobial activity was exhibited by leaf extracts against Micrococcus luteus and n-hexane fruit extract against Aspergillus niger (MIC 3.70 and 12.5 μg/ml respectively).
Multiple solvent system is a crucial variable to retrieve pharmacological potential of medicinal plants and D. innoxia can be envisaged as a novel source of natural antioxidants, antimicrobials and anticancer compounds.