Tags

Type your tag names separated by a space and hit enter

Transrectal ultrasonographic characterization of the accessory sex glands, pelvic urethra, and ureters in normal geldings.
Theriogenology. 2016 Jan 15; 85(2):186-92.T

Abstract

Transrectal ultrasound of the internal urogenital tract may be used to aid in the diagnosis of reproductive tract and urinary tract pathology in both stallions and geldings. Abnormalities of the accessory sex glands of geldings are uncommon, although prostatic masses have recently been described in adult geldings presenting with dysuria, stranguria, and/or hematuria. The purpose of this study was to describe the normal ultrasonographic features and sizes of the accessory sex glands, caudal ureters, and pelvic urethra in clinically normal geldings. Eleven healthy geldings with no history of urogenital tract pathology were evaluated by a single observer experienced in ultrasound of the stallion accessory sex glands. The ultrasonographic appearance, relative anatomic relationships and sizes of the accessory sex glands, caudal ureters, and pelvic urethra were investigated using both rectal linear array and microconvex array transducers. Summary statistics including mean, standard error, confidence intervals, and range were calculated for each structure. There were no statistically significant differences in measurements between the left and right sides of paired structures or between measurements obtained with different transducers. Fluid was present in the seminal vesicles of 7 of 9 subjects. Midline cysts of the urethra as well as bulbourethral gland and prostatic cysts were identified. The normal reference ranges defined in this study will be useful in the clinical evaluation of geldings with suspected internal urogenital tract pathology.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Rood and Riddle Equine Hospital, Lexington, Kentucky, USA.University of Pennsylvania School of Veterinary Medicine, New Bolton Center, Kennett Square, Pennsylvania, USA.Coastal Resources Division, Georgia Department of Natural Resources, Marine Fisheries Section, Brunswick, Georgia, USA.University of Pennsylvania School of Veterinary Medicine, New Bolton Center, Kennett Square, Pennsylvania, USA. Electronic address: slackj@vet.upenn.edu.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

26483314

Citation

Schnobrich, Maria Raymond, et al. "Transrectal Ultrasonographic Characterization of the Accessory Sex Glands, Pelvic Urethra, and Ureters in Normal Geldings." Theriogenology, vol. 85, no. 2, 2016, pp. 186-92.
Schnobrich MR, Turner RO, Belcher CN, et al. Transrectal ultrasonographic characterization of the accessory sex glands, pelvic urethra, and ureters in normal geldings. Theriogenology. 2016;85(2):186-92.
Schnobrich, M. R., Turner, R. O., Belcher, C. N., & Slack, J. (2016). Transrectal ultrasonographic characterization of the accessory sex glands, pelvic urethra, and ureters in normal geldings. Theriogenology, 85(2), 186-92. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.theriogenology.2015.09.008
Schnobrich MR, et al. Transrectal Ultrasonographic Characterization of the Accessory Sex Glands, Pelvic Urethra, and Ureters in Normal Geldings. Theriogenology. 2016 Jan 15;85(2):186-92. PubMed PMID: 26483314.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Transrectal ultrasonographic characterization of the accessory sex glands, pelvic urethra, and ureters in normal geldings. AU - Schnobrich,Maria Raymond, AU - Turner,Regina Orstaglio, AU - Belcher,Carolyn Niles, AU - Slack,JoAnn, Y1 - 2015/09/11/ PY - 2014/11/13/received PY - 2015/09/02/revised PY - 2015/09/03/accepted PY - 2015/10/21/entrez PY - 2015/10/21/pubmed PY - 2016/9/17/medline KW - Ampullae of deferent duct KW - Bulbourethral gland KW - Prostate KW - Seminal colliculus KW - Seminal vesicle SP - 186 EP - 92 JF - Theriogenology JO - Theriogenology VL - 85 IS - 2 N2 - Transrectal ultrasound of the internal urogenital tract may be used to aid in the diagnosis of reproductive tract and urinary tract pathology in both stallions and geldings. Abnormalities of the accessory sex glands of geldings are uncommon, although prostatic masses have recently been described in adult geldings presenting with dysuria, stranguria, and/or hematuria. The purpose of this study was to describe the normal ultrasonographic features and sizes of the accessory sex glands, caudal ureters, and pelvic urethra in clinically normal geldings. Eleven healthy geldings with no history of urogenital tract pathology were evaluated by a single observer experienced in ultrasound of the stallion accessory sex glands. The ultrasonographic appearance, relative anatomic relationships and sizes of the accessory sex glands, caudal ureters, and pelvic urethra were investigated using both rectal linear array and microconvex array transducers. Summary statistics including mean, standard error, confidence intervals, and range were calculated for each structure. There were no statistically significant differences in measurements between the left and right sides of paired structures or between measurements obtained with different transducers. Fluid was present in the seminal vesicles of 7 of 9 subjects. Midline cysts of the urethra as well as bulbourethral gland and prostatic cysts were identified. The normal reference ranges defined in this study will be useful in the clinical evaluation of geldings with suspected internal urogenital tract pathology. SN - 1879-3231 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/26483314/Transrectal_ultrasonographic_characterization_of_the_accessory_sex_glands_pelvic_urethra_and_ureters_in_normal_geldings_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0093-691X(15)00479-3 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -