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Nutritional Supplementation with Chlorella pyrenoidosa Lowers Serum Methylmalonic Acid in Vegans and Vegetarians with a Suspected Vitamin B₁₂ Deficiency.
J Med Food. 2015 Dec; 18(12):1357-62.JM

Abstract

Since vitamin B12 occurs in substantial amounts only in foods derived from animals, vegetarians and particularly vegans are at risk of developing deficiencies of this essential vitamin. The chlorella used for this study is a commercially available whole-food supplement, which is believed to contain the physiologically active form of the vitamin. This exploratory open-label study was performed to determine if adding 9 g of Chlorella pyrenoidosa daily could help mitigate a vitamin B12 deficiency in vegetarians and vegans. Seventeen vegan or vegetarian adults (26-57 years of age) with a known vitamin B12 deficiency, as evidenced by a baseline serum methylmalonic acid (MMA) level above 270 nmol/L at screening, but who otherwise appeared healthy were enrolled in the study. Each participant added 9 g of C. pyrenoidosa to their daily diet for 60 ± 5 days and their serum MMA, vitamin B12, homocysteine (Hcy) levels as well as mean corpuscular volume (MCV), hemoglobin (Hgb), and hematocrit (Hct) were measured at 30 and 60 days from baseline. After 30 and 60 days, the serum MMA level fell significantly (P < .05) by an average ∼34%. Fifteen of the 17 (88%) subjects showed at least a 10% drop in MMA. At the same time, Hcy trended downward and serum vitamin B12 trended upward, while MCV, Hgb, and Hct appeared unchanged. The results of this work suggest that the vitamin B12 in chlorella is bioavailable and such dietary supplementation is a natural way for vegetarians and vegans to get the vitamin B12 they need.

Authors+Show Affiliations

1 Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Virginia Commonwealth University , Richmond, Virginia, USA .1 Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Virginia Commonwealth University , Richmond, Virginia, USA .2 Medicus Research, LLC, Northridge, California, USA .

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

26485478

Citation

Merchant, Randall Edward, et al. "Nutritional Supplementation With Chlorella Pyrenoidosa Lowers Serum Methylmalonic Acid in Vegans and Vegetarians With a Suspected Vitamin B₁₂ Deficiency." Journal of Medicinal Food, vol. 18, no. 12, 2015, pp. 1357-62.
Merchant RE, Phillips TW, Udani J. Nutritional Supplementation with Chlorella pyrenoidosa Lowers Serum Methylmalonic Acid in Vegans and Vegetarians with a Suspected Vitamin B₁₂ Deficiency. J Med Food. 2015;18(12):1357-62.
Merchant, R. E., Phillips, T. W., & Udani, J. (2015). Nutritional Supplementation with Chlorella pyrenoidosa Lowers Serum Methylmalonic Acid in Vegans and Vegetarians with a Suspected Vitamin B₁₂ Deficiency. Journal of Medicinal Food, 18(12), 1357-62. https://doi.org/10.1089/jmf.2015.0056
Merchant RE, Phillips TW, Udani J. Nutritional Supplementation With Chlorella Pyrenoidosa Lowers Serum Methylmalonic Acid in Vegans and Vegetarians With a Suspected Vitamin B₁₂ Deficiency. J Med Food. 2015;18(12):1357-62. PubMed PMID: 26485478.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Nutritional Supplementation with Chlorella pyrenoidosa Lowers Serum Methylmalonic Acid in Vegans and Vegetarians with a Suspected Vitamin B₁₂ Deficiency. AU - Merchant,Randall Edward, AU - Phillips,Todd W, AU - Udani,Jay, Y1 - 2015/10/20/ PY - 2015/10/21/entrez PY - 2015/10/21/pubmed PY - 2016/9/23/medline KW - chlorella KW - methylmalonic acid KW - veganism KW - vegetarian diet KW - vitamin B12 deficiency SP - 1357 EP - 62 JF - Journal of medicinal food JO - J Med Food VL - 18 IS - 12 N2 - Since vitamin B12 occurs in substantial amounts only in foods derived from animals, vegetarians and particularly vegans are at risk of developing deficiencies of this essential vitamin. The chlorella used for this study is a commercially available whole-food supplement, which is believed to contain the physiologically active form of the vitamin. This exploratory open-label study was performed to determine if adding 9 g of Chlorella pyrenoidosa daily could help mitigate a vitamin B12 deficiency in vegetarians and vegans. Seventeen vegan or vegetarian adults (26-57 years of age) with a known vitamin B12 deficiency, as evidenced by a baseline serum methylmalonic acid (MMA) level above 270 nmol/L at screening, but who otherwise appeared healthy were enrolled in the study. Each participant added 9 g of C. pyrenoidosa to their daily diet for 60 ± 5 days and their serum MMA, vitamin B12, homocysteine (Hcy) levels as well as mean corpuscular volume (MCV), hemoglobin (Hgb), and hematocrit (Hct) were measured at 30 and 60 days from baseline. After 30 and 60 days, the serum MMA level fell significantly (P < .05) by an average ∼34%. Fifteen of the 17 (88%) subjects showed at least a 10% drop in MMA. At the same time, Hcy trended downward and serum vitamin B12 trended upward, while MCV, Hgb, and Hct appeared unchanged. The results of this work suggest that the vitamin B12 in chlorella is bioavailable and such dietary supplementation is a natural way for vegetarians and vegans to get the vitamin B12 they need. SN - 1557-7600 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/26485478/Nutritional_Supplementation_with_Chlorella_pyrenoidosa_Lowers_Serum_Methylmalonic_Acid_in_Vegans_and_Vegetarians_with_a_Suspected_Vitamin_B₁₂_Deficiency_ DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -