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Casein Compared with Whey Proteins Affects the Organization of Dietary Fat during Digestion and Attenuates the Postprandial Triglyceride Response to a Mixed High-Fat Meal in Healthy, Overweight Men.
J Nutr. 2015 Dec; 145(12):2657-64.JN

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Postprandial lipemia is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The potential impacts of the type/nature of dietary protein on postprandial lipemia and associated dysregulations have been insufficiently investigated.

OBJECTIVE

We investigated the postprandial effect of including in a high-fat meal some milk protein fractions that markedly differ in their physicochemical properties and composition [either casein (CAS), whey protein (WHE), or α-lactalbumin-enriched whey protein (LAC)].

METHODS

The protein fractions were incorporated as 15% energy in a high-fat meal in a 3-period, crossover postprandial study of 10 healthy overweight men with an elevated waist circumference (>94 cm). We measured postprandial changes in plasma lipids, amino acids, glucose, and oxidative stress markers, vascular function (using pulse contour analysis), and low-grade inflammation (using plasma markers). We also characterized in vitro the meal structures, including the size of the fat globule, and possible changes during digestion.

RESULTS

The type of protein did not affect postprandial plasma glucose, amino acids, insulin, or nonesterified fatty acids, but, compared with WHE and LAC, which did not differ, CAS markedly reduced postprandial triglycerides (TGs), achieving a 22 ± 10% reduction in the 6-h area under the curve (P < 0.05). Similar trends were shown for plasma chylomicrons [apolipoprotein (apo)B-48; P < 0.05]. However, there were no significant differences between the meals regarding postprandial oxidative stress (plasma hydroperoxides and malondialdehyde), endothelial dysfunction (salbutamol-induced changes in pulse contour analysis), or low-grade inflammation. In vitro studies showed that when the pH of the meal decreased to stomach pH values, the reduction in the solubility of casein resulted in a phase separation between fat and protein, whereas the proteins in the other meals remained suspended with fat globules.

CONCLUSION

In healthy overweight men, casein has specific physical interactions with fat that affect postprandial TGs, leading to the formation of fewer chylomicrons or an increase in chylomicron clearance. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00931151.

Authors+Show Affiliations

AgroParisTech, CRNH-IdF, UMR914 Nutrition Physiology and Ingestive Behavior, Paris, France; INRA, CRNH-IdF, UMR914 Nutrition Physiology and Ingestive Behavior, Paris, France; francois.mariotti@agroparistech.fr.AgroParisTech, CRNH-IdF, UMR914 Nutrition Physiology and Ingestive Behavior, Paris, France; INRA, CRNH-IdF, UMR914 Nutrition Physiology and Ingestive Behavior, Paris, France;INRA, UMR1253 Science and Technology of Milk and Egg, Rennes, France; Agrocampus Ouest, UMR1253 Science and Technology of Milk and Egg, Rennes, France; and.AgroParisTech, CRNH-IdF, UMR914 Nutrition Physiology and Ingestive Behavior, Paris, France; INRA, CRNH-IdF, UMR914 Nutrition Physiology and Ingestive Behavior, Paris, France;INRA, UMR1253 Science and Technology of Milk and Egg, Rennes, France; Agrocampus Ouest, UMR1253 Science and Technology of Milk and Egg, Rennes, France; and.AgroParisTech, CRNH-IdF, UMR914 Nutrition Physiology and Ingestive Behavior, Paris, France; INRA, CRNH-IdF, UMR914 Nutrition Physiology and Ingestive Behavior, Paris, France;AgroParisTech, CRNH-IdF, UMR914 Nutrition Physiology and Ingestive Behavior, Paris, France; INRA, CRNH-IdF, UMR914 Nutrition Physiology and Ingestive Behavior, Paris, France;AgroParisTech, CRNH-IdF, UMR914 Nutrition Physiology and Ingestive Behavior, Paris, France; INRA, CRNH-IdF, UMR914 Nutrition Physiology and Ingestive Behavior, Paris, France;AgroParisTech, CRNH-IdF, UMR914 Nutrition Physiology and Ingestive Behavior, Paris, France; INRA, CRNH-IdF, UMR914 Nutrition Physiology and Ingestive Behavior, Paris, France;AgroParisTech, CRNH-IdF, UMR914 Nutrition Physiology and Ingestive Behavior, Paris, France; INRA, CRNH-IdF, UMR914 Nutrition Physiology and Ingestive Behavior, Paris, France;Centre of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany.AgroParisTech, CRNH-IdF, UMR914 Nutrition Physiology and Ingestive Behavior, Paris, France; INRA, CRNH-IdF, UMR914 Nutrition Physiology and Ingestive Behavior, Paris, France;

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Randomized Controlled Trial
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

26491119

Citation

Mariotti, François, et al. "Casein Compared With Whey Proteins Affects the Organization of Dietary Fat During Digestion and Attenuates the Postprandial Triglyceride Response to a Mixed High-Fat Meal in Healthy, Overweight Men." The Journal of Nutrition, vol. 145, no. 12, 2015, pp. 2657-64.
Mariotti F, Valette M, Lopez C, et al. Casein Compared with Whey Proteins Affects the Organization of Dietary Fat during Digestion and Attenuates the Postprandial Triglyceride Response to a Mixed High-Fat Meal in Healthy, Overweight Men. J Nutr. 2015;145(12):2657-64.
Mariotti, F., Valette, M., Lopez, C., Fouillet, H., Famelart, M. H., Mathé, V., Airinei, G., Benamouzig, R., Gaudichon, C., Tomé, D., Tsikas, D., & Huneau, J. F. (2015). Casein Compared with Whey Proteins Affects the Organization of Dietary Fat during Digestion and Attenuates the Postprandial Triglyceride Response to a Mixed High-Fat Meal in Healthy, Overweight Men. The Journal of Nutrition, 145(12), 2657-64. https://doi.org/10.3945/jn.115.216812
Mariotti F, et al. Casein Compared With Whey Proteins Affects the Organization of Dietary Fat During Digestion and Attenuates the Postprandial Triglyceride Response to a Mixed High-Fat Meal in Healthy, Overweight Men. J Nutr. 2015;145(12):2657-64. PubMed PMID: 26491119.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Casein Compared with Whey Proteins Affects the Organization of Dietary Fat during Digestion and Attenuates the Postprandial Triglyceride Response to a Mixed High-Fat Meal in Healthy, Overweight Men. AU - Mariotti,François, AU - Valette,Marion, AU - Lopez,Christelle, AU - Fouillet,Hélène, AU - Famelart,Marie-Hélène, AU - Mathé,Véronique, AU - Airinei,Gheorghe, AU - Benamouzig,Robert, AU - Gaudichon,Claire, AU - Tomé,Daniel, AU - Tsikas,Dimitrios, AU - Huneau,Jean François, Y1 - 2015/10/21/ PY - 2015/05/11/received PY - 2015/09/25/accepted PY - 2015/10/23/entrez PY - 2015/10/23/pubmed PY - 2016/3/29/medline KW - dietary protein KW - high-fat meal KW - humans KW - meal structure KW - metabolic dysregulation KW - milk protein KW - postprandial period KW - triglycerides SP - 2657 EP - 64 JF - The Journal of nutrition JO - J. Nutr. VL - 145 IS - 12 N2 - BACKGROUND: Postprandial lipemia is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The potential impacts of the type/nature of dietary protein on postprandial lipemia and associated dysregulations have been insufficiently investigated. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the postprandial effect of including in a high-fat meal some milk protein fractions that markedly differ in their physicochemical properties and composition [either casein (CAS), whey protein (WHE), or α-lactalbumin-enriched whey protein (LAC)]. METHODS: The protein fractions were incorporated as 15% energy in a high-fat meal in a 3-period, crossover postprandial study of 10 healthy overweight men with an elevated waist circumference (>94 cm). We measured postprandial changes in plasma lipids, amino acids, glucose, and oxidative stress markers, vascular function (using pulse contour analysis), and low-grade inflammation (using plasma markers). We also characterized in vitro the meal structures, including the size of the fat globule, and possible changes during digestion. RESULTS: The type of protein did not affect postprandial plasma glucose, amino acids, insulin, or nonesterified fatty acids, but, compared with WHE and LAC, which did not differ, CAS markedly reduced postprandial triglycerides (TGs), achieving a 22 ± 10% reduction in the 6-h area under the curve (P < 0.05). Similar trends were shown for plasma chylomicrons [apolipoprotein (apo)B-48; P < 0.05]. However, there were no significant differences between the meals regarding postprandial oxidative stress (plasma hydroperoxides and malondialdehyde), endothelial dysfunction (salbutamol-induced changes in pulse contour analysis), or low-grade inflammation. In vitro studies showed that when the pH of the meal decreased to stomach pH values, the reduction in the solubility of casein resulted in a phase separation between fat and protein, whereas the proteins in the other meals remained suspended with fat globules. CONCLUSION: In healthy overweight men, casein has specific physical interactions with fat that affect postprandial TGs, leading to the formation of fewer chylomicrons or an increase in chylomicron clearance. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00931151. SN - 1541-6100 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/26491119/Casein_Compared_with_Whey_Proteins_Affects_the_Organization_of_Dietary_Fat_during_Digestion_and_Attenuates_the_Postprandial_Triglyceride_Response_to_a_Mixed_High_Fat_Meal_in_Healthy_Overweight_Men_ L2 - https://academic.oup.com/jn/article-lookup/doi/10.3945/jn.115.216812 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -