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Antioxidant, antibacterial activity, and phytochemical characterization of Melaleuca cajuputi extract.
BMC Complement Altern Med. 2015 Oct 24; 15:385.BC

Abstract

BACKGROUND

The threat posed by drug-resistant pathogens has resulted in the increasing momentum in research and development for effective alternative medications. The antioxidant and antibacterial properties of phytochemical extracts makes them attractive alternative complementary medicines. Therefore, this study evaluated the phytochemical constituents of Melaleuca cajuputi flower and leaf (GF and GL, respectively) extracts and their antioxidant and antibacterial activities.

METHODS

Radical scavenging capacity of the extracts was estimated using 2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and Fe(2+)-chelating activity. Total antioxidant activity was determined using ferric reducing antioxidant power assay. Well diffusion, minimum inhibitory concentration, and minimum bactericidal concentration assays were used to determine antibacterial activity against eight pathogens, namely Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Salmonella typhimurium, Klebsiella pneumonia, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Pasteurella multocida. We identified and quantified the phytochemical constituents in methanol extracts using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) and gas chromatography (GC)/MS.

RESULTS

This study reports the antioxidant and radical scavenging activity of M. cajuputi methanolic extracts. The GF extract showed better efficacy than that of the GL extract. The total phenolic contents were higher in the flower extract than they were in the leaf extract (0.55 ± 0.05 and 0.37 ± 0.05 gallic acid equivalent per mg extract dry weight, respectively). As expected, the percentage radical inhibition by GF was higher than that by the GL extract (81 and 75 %, respectively). A similar trend was observed in Fe(2+)-chelating activity and β-carotene bleaching tests. The antibacterial assay of the extracts revealed no inhibition zones with the Gram-negative bacteria tested. However, the extracts demonstrated activity against B. cereus, S. aureus, and S. epidermidis.

CONCLUSIONS

In this study, we found that M. cajuputi extracts possess antioxidant and antibacterial activities. The results revealed that both extracts had significant antioxidant and free radical-scavenging activity. Both extracts had antibacterial activity against S. aureus, S. epidermidis, and B. cereus. The antioxidant and antimicrobial activities could be attributed to high flavonoid and phenolic contents identified using GC/MS and LC/MS. Therefore, M. cajuputi could be an excellent source for natural antioxidant and antibacterial agents for medical and nutraceutical applications.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, 50603, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Nazehali78@yahoo.com.Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, 50603, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. zuraineemn@um.edu.my.Department of Anesthesiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, 50603, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. marzida@um.edu.my.Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. fadzly.ktrade@gmail.com.Department of Anesthesiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, 50603, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. shahnaz_hasan@um.edu.my.Department of Anesthesiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, 50603, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. zoobeadi@yahoo.com.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

26497742

Citation

Al-Abd, Nazeh M., et al. "Antioxidant, Antibacterial Activity, and Phytochemical Characterization of Melaleuca Cajuputi Extract." BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 15, 2015, p. 385.
Al-Abd NM, Mohamed Nor Z, Mansor M, et al. Antioxidant, antibacterial activity, and phytochemical characterization of Melaleuca cajuputi extract. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2015;15:385.
Al-Abd, N. M., Mohamed Nor, Z., Mansor, M., Azhar, F., Hasan, M. S., & Kassim, M. (2015). Antioxidant, antibacterial activity, and phytochemical characterization of Melaleuca cajuputi extract. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 15, 385. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12906-015-0914-y
Al-Abd NM, et al. Antioxidant, Antibacterial Activity, and Phytochemical Characterization of Melaleuca Cajuputi Extract. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2015 Oct 24;15:385. PubMed PMID: 26497742.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Antioxidant, antibacterial activity, and phytochemical characterization of Melaleuca cajuputi extract. AU - Al-Abd,Nazeh M, AU - Mohamed Nor,Zurainee, AU - Mansor,Marzida, AU - Azhar,Fadzly, AU - Hasan,M S, AU - Kassim,Mustafa, Y1 - 2015/10/24/ PY - 2015/02/22/received PY - 2015/10/13/accepted PY - 2015/10/27/entrez PY - 2015/10/27/pubmed PY - 2016/9/9/medline SP - 385 EP - 385 JF - BMC complementary and alternative medicine JO - BMC Complement Altern Med VL - 15 N2 - BACKGROUND: The threat posed by drug-resistant pathogens has resulted in the increasing momentum in research and development for effective alternative medications. The antioxidant and antibacterial properties of phytochemical extracts makes them attractive alternative complementary medicines. Therefore, this study evaluated the phytochemical constituents of Melaleuca cajuputi flower and leaf (GF and GL, respectively) extracts and their antioxidant and antibacterial activities. METHODS: Radical scavenging capacity of the extracts was estimated using 2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and Fe(2+)-chelating activity. Total antioxidant activity was determined using ferric reducing antioxidant power assay. Well diffusion, minimum inhibitory concentration, and minimum bactericidal concentration assays were used to determine antibacterial activity against eight pathogens, namely Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Salmonella typhimurium, Klebsiella pneumonia, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Pasteurella multocida. We identified and quantified the phytochemical constituents in methanol extracts using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) and gas chromatography (GC)/MS. RESULTS: This study reports the antioxidant and radical scavenging activity of M. cajuputi methanolic extracts. The GF extract showed better efficacy than that of the GL extract. The total phenolic contents were higher in the flower extract than they were in the leaf extract (0.55 ± 0.05 and 0.37 ± 0.05 gallic acid equivalent per mg extract dry weight, respectively). As expected, the percentage radical inhibition by GF was higher than that by the GL extract (81 and 75 %, respectively). A similar trend was observed in Fe(2+)-chelating activity and β-carotene bleaching tests. The antibacterial assay of the extracts revealed no inhibition zones with the Gram-negative bacteria tested. However, the extracts demonstrated activity against B. cereus, S. aureus, and S. epidermidis. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we found that M. cajuputi extracts possess antioxidant and antibacterial activities. The results revealed that both extracts had significant antioxidant and free radical-scavenging activity. Both extracts had antibacterial activity against S. aureus, S. epidermidis, and B. cereus. The antioxidant and antimicrobial activities could be attributed to high flavonoid and phenolic contents identified using GC/MS and LC/MS. Therefore, M. cajuputi could be an excellent source for natural antioxidant and antibacterial agents for medical and nutraceutical applications. SN - 1472-6882 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/26497742/Antioxidant_antibacterial_activity_and_phytochemical_characterization_of_Melaleuca_cajuputi_extract_ L2 - https://bmccomplementalternmed.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12906-015-0914-y DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -