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Micronutrient status and intake in omnivores, vegetarians and vegans in Switzerland.
Eur J Nutr 2017; 56(1):283-293EJ

Abstract

PURPOSE

Vegetarian and vegan diets have gained popularity in Switzerland. The nutritional status of individuals who have adopted such diets, however, has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to assess the intake and status of selected vitamins and minerals among vegetarian and vegan adults living in Switzerland.

METHODS

Healthy adults [omnivores (OVs), n OV = 100; vegetarians (VGs), n VG = 53; vegans (VNs), n VN = 53] aged 18-50 years were recruited, and their weight and height were measured. Plasma concentrations of the vitamins A, C, E, B1, B2, B6, B12, folic acid, pantothenic acid, niacin, biotin and β-carotene and of the minerals Fe, Mg and Zn and urinary iodine concentration were determined. Dietary intake was assessed using a three-day weighed food record, and questionnaires were issued in order to assess the physical activity and lifestyle of the subjects.

RESULTS

Omnivores had the lowest intake of Mg, vitamin C, vitamin E, niacin and folic acid. Vegans reported low intakes of Ca and a marginal consumption of the vitamins D and B12. The highest prevalence for vitamin and mineral deficiencies in each group was as follows: in the omnivorous group, for folic acid (58 %); in the vegetarian group, for vitamin B6 and niacin (58 and 34 %, respectively); and in the vegan group, for Zn (47 %). Despite negligible dietary vitamin B12 intake in the vegan group, deficiency of this particular vitamin was low in all groups thanks to widespread use of supplements. Prevalence of Fe deficiency was comparable across all diet groups.

CONCLUSIONS

Despite substantial differences in intake and deficiency between groups, our results indicate that by consuming a well-balanced diet including supplements or fortified products, all three types of diet can potentially fulfill requirements for vitamin and mineral consumption.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Human Nutrition Laboratory, ETH Zurich, Schmelzbergstrasse 7, LFV D22, 8092, Zurich, Switzerland.Human Nutrition Laboratory, ETH Zurich, Schmelzbergstrasse 7, LFV D22, 8092, Zurich, Switzerland. International Group, MRC Keneba, Keneba, The Gambia.Swiss Vitamin Institute, Epalinges, Switzerland.Swiss Vitamin Institute, Epalinges, Switzerland.Human Nutrition Laboratory, ETH Zurich, Schmelzbergstrasse 7, LFV D22, 8092, Zurich, Switzerland. isabelle.herter@hest.ethz.ch.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

26502280

Citation

Schüpbach, R, et al. "Micronutrient Status and Intake in Omnivores, Vegetarians and Vegans in Switzerland." European Journal of Nutrition, vol. 56, no. 1, 2017, pp. 283-293.
Schüpbach R, Wegmüller R, Berguerand C, et al. Micronutrient status and intake in omnivores, vegetarians and vegans in Switzerland. Eur J Nutr. 2017;56(1):283-293.
Schüpbach, R., Wegmüller, R., Berguerand, C., Bui, M., & Herter-Aeberli, I. (2017). Micronutrient status and intake in omnivores, vegetarians and vegans in Switzerland. European Journal of Nutrition, 56(1), pp. 283-293. doi:10.1007/s00394-015-1079-7.
Schüpbach R, et al. Micronutrient Status and Intake in Omnivores, Vegetarians and Vegans in Switzerland. Eur J Nutr. 2017;56(1):283-293. PubMed PMID: 26502280.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Micronutrient status and intake in omnivores, vegetarians and vegans in Switzerland. AU - Schüpbach,R, AU - Wegmüller,R, AU - Berguerand,C, AU - Bui,M, AU - Herter-Aeberli,I, Y1 - 2015/10/26/ PY - 2015/02/26/received PY - 2015/10/09/accepted PY - 2015/10/27/pubmed PY - 2017/4/5/medline PY - 2015/10/27/entrez KW - Dietary intake KW - Micronutrient status KW - Minerals KW - Vegan KW - Vegetarian KW - Vitamins SP - 283 EP - 293 JF - European journal of nutrition JO - Eur J Nutr VL - 56 IS - 1 N2 - PURPOSE: Vegetarian and vegan diets have gained popularity in Switzerland. The nutritional status of individuals who have adopted such diets, however, has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to assess the intake and status of selected vitamins and minerals among vegetarian and vegan adults living in Switzerland. METHODS: Healthy adults [omnivores (OVs), n OV = 100; vegetarians (VGs), n VG = 53; vegans (VNs), n VN = 53] aged 18-50 years were recruited, and their weight and height were measured. Plasma concentrations of the vitamins A, C, E, B1, B2, B6, B12, folic acid, pantothenic acid, niacin, biotin and β-carotene and of the minerals Fe, Mg and Zn and urinary iodine concentration were determined. Dietary intake was assessed using a three-day weighed food record, and questionnaires were issued in order to assess the physical activity and lifestyle of the subjects. RESULTS: Omnivores had the lowest intake of Mg, vitamin C, vitamin E, niacin and folic acid. Vegans reported low intakes of Ca and a marginal consumption of the vitamins D and B12. The highest prevalence for vitamin and mineral deficiencies in each group was as follows: in the omnivorous group, for folic acid (58 %); in the vegetarian group, for vitamin B6 and niacin (58 and 34 %, respectively); and in the vegan group, for Zn (47 %). Despite negligible dietary vitamin B12 intake in the vegan group, deficiency of this particular vitamin was low in all groups thanks to widespread use of supplements. Prevalence of Fe deficiency was comparable across all diet groups. CONCLUSIONS: Despite substantial differences in intake and deficiency between groups, our results indicate that by consuming a well-balanced diet including supplements or fortified products, all three types of diet can potentially fulfill requirements for vitamin and mineral consumption. SN - 1436-6215 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/26502280/Micronutrient_status_and_intake_in_omnivores_vegetarians_and_vegans_in_Switzerland_ L2 - https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00394-015-1079-7 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -