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Effects of Vegetarian Diets on Blood Lipids: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Vegetarian diets exclude all animal flesh and are being widely adopted by an increasing number of people; however, effects on blood lipid concentrations remain unclear. This meta-analysis aimed to quantitatively assess the overall effects of vegetarian diets on blood lipids.

METHODS AND RESULTS

We searched PubMed, Scopus, Embase, ISI Web of Knowledge, and the Cochrane Library through March 2015. Studies were included if they described the effectiveness of vegetarian diets on blood lipids (total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride). Weighted mean effect sizes were calculated for net changes by using a random-effects model. We performed subgroup and univariate meta-regression analyses to explore sources of heterogeneity. Eleven trials were included in the meta-analysis. Vegetarian diets significantly lowered blood concentrations of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and the pooled estimated changes were -0.36 mmol/L (95% CI -0.55 to -0.17; P<0.001), -0.34 mmol/L (95% CI -0.57 to -0.11; P<0.001), -0.10 mmol/L (95% CI -0.14 to -0.06; P<0.001), and -0.30 mmol/L (95% CI -0.50 to -0.10; P=0.04), respectively. Vegetarian diets did not significantly affect blood triglyceride concentrations, with a pooled estimated mean difference of 0.04 mmol/L (95% CI -0.05 to 0.13; P=0.40).

CONCLUSIONS

This systematic review and meta-analysis provides evidence that vegetarian diets effectively lower blood concentrations of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Such diets could be a useful nonpharmaceutical means of managing dyslipidemia, especially hypercholesterolemia.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China (F.W., J.Z., B.Y., J.J., Y.F., D.L.).

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    Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China (F.W., J.Z., B.Y., J.J., Y.F., D.L.).

    ,

    Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China (F.W., J.Z., B.Y., J.J., Y.F., D.L.).

    ,

    Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China (F.W., J.Z., B.Y., J.J., Y.F., D.L.).

    ,

    Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China (F.W., J.Z., B.Y., J.J., Y.F., D.L.).

    Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China (F.W., J.Z., B.Y., J.J., Y.F., D.L.).

    Source

    Journal of the American Heart Association 4:10 2015 Oct 27 pg e002408

    MeSH

    Biomarkers
    Diet, Vegetarian
    Down-Regulation
    Dyslipidemias
    Humans
    Lipids
    Vegetarians

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Meta-Analysis
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
    Review
    Systematic Review

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    26508743

    Citation

    Wang, Fenglei, et al. "Effects of Vegetarian Diets On Blood Lipids: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials." Journal of the American Heart Association, vol. 4, no. 10, 2015, pp. e002408.
    Wang F, Zheng J, Yang B, et al. Effects of Vegetarian Diets on Blood Lipids: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. J Am Heart Assoc. 2015;4(10):e002408.
    Wang, F., Zheng, J., Yang, B., Jiang, J., Fu, Y., & Li, D. (2015). Effects of Vegetarian Diets on Blood Lipids: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. Journal of the American Heart Association, 4(10), pp. e002408. doi:10.1161/JAHA.115.002408.
    Wang F, et al. Effects of Vegetarian Diets On Blood Lipids: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. J Am Heart Assoc. 2015 Oct 27;4(10):e002408. PubMed PMID: 26508743.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Effects of Vegetarian Diets on Blood Lipids: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. AU - Wang,Fenglei, AU - Zheng,Jusheng, AU - Yang,Bo, AU - Jiang,Jiajing, AU - Fu,Yuanqing, AU - Li,Duo, Y1 - 2015/10/27/ PY - 2015/10/29/entrez PY - 2015/10/29/pubmed PY - 2016/7/9/medline KW - cholesterol KW - diet KW - lipoprotein lipids KW - triglyceride KW - vegetarian SP - e002408 EP - e002408 JF - Journal of the American Heart Association JO - J Am Heart Assoc VL - 4 IS - 10 N2 - BACKGROUND: Vegetarian diets exclude all animal flesh and are being widely adopted by an increasing number of people; however, effects on blood lipid concentrations remain unclear. This meta-analysis aimed to quantitatively assess the overall effects of vegetarian diets on blood lipids. METHODS AND RESULTS: We searched PubMed, Scopus, Embase, ISI Web of Knowledge, and the Cochrane Library through March 2015. Studies were included if they described the effectiveness of vegetarian diets on blood lipids (total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride). Weighted mean effect sizes were calculated for net changes by using a random-effects model. We performed subgroup and univariate meta-regression analyses to explore sources of heterogeneity. Eleven trials were included in the meta-analysis. Vegetarian diets significantly lowered blood concentrations of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and the pooled estimated changes were -0.36 mmol/L (95% CI -0.55 to -0.17; P<0.001), -0.34 mmol/L (95% CI -0.57 to -0.11; P<0.001), -0.10 mmol/L (95% CI -0.14 to -0.06; P<0.001), and -0.30 mmol/L (95% CI -0.50 to -0.10; P=0.04), respectively. Vegetarian diets did not significantly affect blood triglyceride concentrations, with a pooled estimated mean difference of 0.04 mmol/L (95% CI -0.05 to 0.13; P=0.40). CONCLUSIONS: This systematic review and meta-analysis provides evidence that vegetarian diets effectively lower blood concentrations of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Such diets could be a useful nonpharmaceutical means of managing dyslipidemia, especially hypercholesterolemia. SN - 2047-9980 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/26508743/full_citation L2 - http://www.ahajournals.org/doi/full/10.1161/JAHA.115.002408?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&amp;rfr_id=ori:rid:crossref.org&amp;rfr_dat=cr_pub=pubmed DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -