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Metabolic profiles of male meat eaters, fish eaters, vegetarians, and vegans from the EPIC-Oxford cohort.
Am J Clin Nutr. 2015 Dec; 102(6):1518-26.AJ

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Human metabolism is influenced by dietary factors and lifestyle, environmental, and genetic factors; thus, men who exclude some or all animal products from their diet might have different metabolic profiles than meat eaters.

OBJECTIVE

We aimed to investigate differences in concentrations of 118 circulating metabolites, including acylcarnitines, amino acids, biogenic amines, glycerophospholipids, hexose, and sphingolipids related to lipid, protein, and carbohydrate metabolism between male meat eaters, fish eaters, vegetarians, and vegans from the Oxford arm of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.

DESIGN

In this cross-sectional study, concentrations of metabolites were measured by mass spectrometry in plasma from 379 men categorized according to their diet group. Differences in mean metabolite concentrations across diet groups were tested by using ANOVA, and a false discovery rate-controlling procedure was used to account for multiple testing. Principal component analysis was used to investigate patterns in metabolic profiles.

RESULTS

Concentrations of 79% of metabolites differed significantly by diet group. In the vast majority of these cases, vegans had the lowest concentration, whereas meat eaters most often had the highest concentrations of the acylcarnitines, glycerophospholipids, and sphingolipids, and fish eaters or vegetarians most often had the highest concentrations of the amino acids and a biogenic amine. A clear separation between patterns in the metabolic profiles of the 4 diet groups was seen, with vegans being noticeably different from the other groups because of lower concentrations of some glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids.

CONCLUSIONS

Metabolic profiles in plasma could effectively differentiate between men from different habitual diet groups, especially vegan men compared with men who consume animal products. The difference in metabolic profiles was mainly explained by the lower concentrations of glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids in vegans.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Cancer Epidemiology Unit, Nuffield Department of Population Health, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom;International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, France; and.International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, France; and.International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, France; and.International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, France; and.International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, France; and.Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom.Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom.Cancer Epidemiology Unit, Nuffield Department of Population Health, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom;Cancer Epidemiology Unit, Nuffield Department of Population Health, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom;Cancer Epidemiology Unit, Nuffield Department of Population Health, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom;Cancer Epidemiology Unit, Nuffield Department of Population Health, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom; ruth.travis@ceu.ox.ac.uk.

Pub Type(s)

Comparative Study
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

26511225

Citation

Schmidt, Julie A., et al. "Metabolic Profiles of Male Meat Eaters, Fish Eaters, Vegetarians, and Vegans From the EPIC-Oxford Cohort." The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 102, no. 6, 2015, pp. 1518-26.
Schmidt JA, Rinaldi S, Ferrari P, et al. Metabolic profiles of male meat eaters, fish eaters, vegetarians, and vegans from the EPIC-Oxford cohort. Am J Clin Nutr. 2015;102(6):1518-26.
Schmidt, J. A., Rinaldi, S., Ferrari, P., Carayol, M., Achaintre, D., Scalbert, A., Cross, A. J., Gunter, M. J., Fensom, G. K., Appleby, P. N., Key, T. J., & Travis, R. C. (2015). Metabolic profiles of male meat eaters, fish eaters, vegetarians, and vegans from the EPIC-Oxford cohort. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 102(6), 1518-26. https://doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.115.111989
Schmidt JA, et al. Metabolic Profiles of Male Meat Eaters, Fish Eaters, Vegetarians, and Vegans From the EPIC-Oxford Cohort. Am J Clin Nutr. 2015;102(6):1518-26. PubMed PMID: 26511225.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Metabolic profiles of male meat eaters, fish eaters, vegetarians, and vegans from the EPIC-Oxford cohort. AU - Schmidt,Julie A, AU - Rinaldi,Sabina, AU - Ferrari,Pietro, AU - Carayol,Marion, AU - Achaintre,David, AU - Scalbert,Augustin, AU - Cross,Amanda J, AU - Gunter,Marc J, AU - Fensom,Georgina K, AU - Appleby,Paul N, AU - Key,Timothy J, AU - Travis,Ruth C, Y1 - 2015/10/28/ PY - 2015/03/27/received PY - 2015/09/15/accepted PY - 2015/10/30/entrez PY - 2015/10/30/pubmed PY - 2016/4/14/medline KW - EPIC-Oxford KW - mass spectrometry KW - metabolomics KW - vegan KW - vegetarian SP - 1518 EP - 26 JF - The American journal of clinical nutrition JO - Am J Clin Nutr VL - 102 IS - 6 N2 - BACKGROUND: Human metabolism is influenced by dietary factors and lifestyle, environmental, and genetic factors; thus, men who exclude some or all animal products from their diet might have different metabolic profiles than meat eaters. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate differences in concentrations of 118 circulating metabolites, including acylcarnitines, amino acids, biogenic amines, glycerophospholipids, hexose, and sphingolipids related to lipid, protein, and carbohydrate metabolism between male meat eaters, fish eaters, vegetarians, and vegans from the Oxford arm of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. DESIGN: In this cross-sectional study, concentrations of metabolites were measured by mass spectrometry in plasma from 379 men categorized according to their diet group. Differences in mean metabolite concentrations across diet groups were tested by using ANOVA, and a false discovery rate-controlling procedure was used to account for multiple testing. Principal component analysis was used to investigate patterns in metabolic profiles. RESULTS: Concentrations of 79% of metabolites differed significantly by diet group. In the vast majority of these cases, vegans had the lowest concentration, whereas meat eaters most often had the highest concentrations of the acylcarnitines, glycerophospholipids, and sphingolipids, and fish eaters or vegetarians most often had the highest concentrations of the amino acids and a biogenic amine. A clear separation between patterns in the metabolic profiles of the 4 diet groups was seen, with vegans being noticeably different from the other groups because of lower concentrations of some glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids. CONCLUSIONS: Metabolic profiles in plasma could effectively differentiate between men from different habitual diet groups, especially vegan men compared with men who consume animal products. The difference in metabolic profiles was mainly explained by the lower concentrations of glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids in vegans. SN - 1938-3207 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/26511225/Metabolic_profiles_of_male_meat_eaters_fish_eaters_vegetarians_and_vegans_from_the_EPIC_Oxford_cohort_ L2 - https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article-lookup/doi/10.3945/ajcn.115.111989 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -