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Supplementation of krill oil with high phospholipid content increases sum of EPA and DHA in erythrocytes compared with low phospholipid krill oil.
Lipids Health Dis. 2015 Nov 04; 14:142.LH

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Bioavailability of krill oil has been suggested to be higher than fish oil as much of the EPA and DHA in krill oil are bound to phospholipids (PL). Hence, PL content in krill oil might play an important role in incorporation of n-3 PUFA into the RBC, conferring properties that render it effective in reducing cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. The objective of the present trial was to test the effect of different amounts of PL in krill oil on the bioavailability of EPA and DHA, assessed as the rate of increase of n-3 PUFA in plasma and RBC, in healthy volunteers.

METHODS AND DESIGN

In a semi randomized crossover single blind design study, 20 healthy participants consumed various oils consisting of 1.5 g/day of low PL krill oil (LPL), 3 g/day of high PL krill oil (HPL) or 3 g/day of a placebo, corn oil, for 4 weeks each separated by 8 week washout periods. Both LPL and HPL delivered 600 mg of total n-3 PUFA/day along with 600 and 1200 mg/day of PL, respectively.

RESULTS

Changes in plasma EPA, DPA, DHA, total n-3 PUFA, n-6:n-3 ratio and EPA + DHA concentrations between LPL and HPL krill oil supplementations were observed to be similar. Intake of both forms of krill oils increased the RBC level of EPA (p < 0.001) along with reduced n-6 PUFA (LPL: p < 0.001: HPL: p = 0.007) compared to control. HPL consumption increased (p < 0.001) RBC concentrations of EPA, DPA, total and n-3 PUFA compared with LPL. Furthermore, although LPL did not alter RBC n-6:n-3 ratio or the sum of EPA and DHA compared to control, HPL intake decreased (p < 0.001) n-6:n-3 ratio relative to control with elevated (p < 0.001) sum of EPA and DHA compared to control as well as to LPL krill oil consumption. HPL krill oil intake elevated (p < 0.005) plasma total and LDL cholesterol concentrations compared to control, while LPL krill oil did not alter total and LDL cholesterol, relative to control.

CONCLUSIONS

The results indicate that krill oil with higher PL levels could lead to enhanced bioavailability of n-3 PUFA compared to krill oil with lower PL levels.

TRIAL REGISTRATION

Clinicaltrials.gov# NCT01323036.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Richardson Centre for Functional Foods and Nutraceuticals, University of Manitoba, 196 Innovation Drive, Winnipeg, MB, R3T 2N2, Canada. vanu_ramprasath@umanitoba.ca. Department of Human Nutritional Sciences, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada. vanu_ramprasath@umanitoba.ca.Enzymotec Ltd. P.O.B 6, Migdal HaEmeq, Israel. Inbal@enzymotec.com.Enzymotec Ltd. P.O.B 6, Migdal HaEmeq, Israel. sigalit@enzymotec.com.Enzymotec Ltd. P.O.B 6, Migdal HaEmeq, Israel. Itay@enzymotec.com.Richardson Centre for Functional Foods and Nutraceuticals, University of Manitoba, 196 Innovation Drive, Winnipeg, MB, R3T 2N2, Canada. Peter.Jones@umanitoba.ca. Department of Human Nutritional Sciences, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada. Peter.Jones@umanitoba.ca.

Pub Type(s)

Comparative Study
Journal Article
Randomized Controlled Trial

Language

eng

PubMed ID

26537218

Citation

Ramprasath, V R., et al. "Supplementation of Krill Oil With High Phospholipid Content Increases Sum of EPA and DHA in Erythrocytes Compared With Low Phospholipid Krill Oil." Lipids in Health and Disease, vol. 14, 2015, p. 142.
Ramprasath VR, Eyal I, Zchut S, et al. Supplementation of krill oil with high phospholipid content increases sum of EPA and DHA in erythrocytes compared with low phospholipid krill oil. Lipids Health Dis. 2015;14:142.
Ramprasath, V. R., Eyal, I., Zchut, S., Shafat, I., & Jones, P. J. (2015). Supplementation of krill oil with high phospholipid content increases sum of EPA and DHA in erythrocytes compared with low phospholipid krill oil. Lipids in Health and Disease, 14, 142. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12944-015-0142-y
Ramprasath VR, et al. Supplementation of Krill Oil With High Phospholipid Content Increases Sum of EPA and DHA in Erythrocytes Compared With Low Phospholipid Krill Oil. Lipids Health Dis. 2015 Nov 4;14:142. PubMed PMID: 26537218.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Supplementation of krill oil with high phospholipid content increases sum of EPA and DHA in erythrocytes compared with low phospholipid krill oil. AU - Ramprasath,V R, AU - Eyal,I, AU - Zchut,S, AU - Shafat,I, AU - Jones,P J H, Y1 - 2015/11/04/ PY - 2015/10/03/received PY - 2015/10/22/accepted PY - 2015/11/6/entrez PY - 2015/11/6/pubmed PY - 2016/7/13/medline SP - 142 EP - 142 JF - Lipids in health and disease JO - Lipids Health Dis VL - 14 N2 - BACKGROUND: Bioavailability of krill oil has been suggested to be higher than fish oil as much of the EPA and DHA in krill oil are bound to phospholipids (PL). Hence, PL content in krill oil might play an important role in incorporation of n-3 PUFA into the RBC, conferring properties that render it effective in reducing cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. The objective of the present trial was to test the effect of different amounts of PL in krill oil on the bioavailability of EPA and DHA, assessed as the rate of increase of n-3 PUFA in plasma and RBC, in healthy volunteers. METHODS AND DESIGN: In a semi randomized crossover single blind design study, 20 healthy participants consumed various oils consisting of 1.5 g/day of low PL krill oil (LPL), 3 g/day of high PL krill oil (HPL) or 3 g/day of a placebo, corn oil, for 4 weeks each separated by 8 week washout periods. Both LPL and HPL delivered 600 mg of total n-3 PUFA/day along with 600 and 1200 mg/day of PL, respectively. RESULTS: Changes in plasma EPA, DPA, DHA, total n-3 PUFA, n-6:n-3 ratio and EPA + DHA concentrations between LPL and HPL krill oil supplementations were observed to be similar. Intake of both forms of krill oils increased the RBC level of EPA (p < 0.001) along with reduced n-6 PUFA (LPL: p < 0.001: HPL: p = 0.007) compared to control. HPL consumption increased (p < 0.001) RBC concentrations of EPA, DPA, total and n-3 PUFA compared with LPL. Furthermore, although LPL did not alter RBC n-6:n-3 ratio or the sum of EPA and DHA compared to control, HPL intake decreased (p < 0.001) n-6:n-3 ratio relative to control with elevated (p < 0.001) sum of EPA and DHA compared to control as well as to LPL krill oil consumption. HPL krill oil intake elevated (p < 0.005) plasma total and LDL cholesterol concentrations compared to control, while LPL krill oil did not alter total and LDL cholesterol, relative to control. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that krill oil with higher PL levels could lead to enhanced bioavailability of n-3 PUFA compared to krill oil with lower PL levels. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov# NCT01323036. SN - 1476-511X UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/26537218/Supplementation_of_krill_oil_with_high_phospholipid_content_increases_sum_of_EPA_and_DHA_in_erythrocytes_compared_with_low_phospholipid_krill_oil_ L2 - https://lipidworld.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12944-015-0142-y DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -