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Safety and efficacy of cocoa flavanol intake in healthy adults: a randomized, controlled, double-masked trial.
Am J Clin Nutr. 2015 Dec; 102(6):1425-35.AJ

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Evidence from dietary intervention studies shows that the intake of flavanols and procyanidins can be beneficial for cardiovascular health. Nevertheless, there is a clear need for advancing our understanding with regard to safe amounts of intake for these bioactives.

OBJECTIVE

The aim was to investigate in healthy adults the effects of cocoa flavanol (CF) intake amount and intake duration on blood pressure, platelet function, metabolic variables, and potential adverse events (AEs).

DESIGN

This investigation consisted of 2 parts. Part 1 was an open-label, intake-amount escalation study, in which 34 healthy adults (aged 35-55 y) consumed escalating amounts of CFs, ranging from 1000 to 2000 mg/d over 6 wk. Primary outcomes were blood pressure and platelet function, select metabolic variables, and the occurrence and severity of AEs. Secondary outcomes included plasma concentrations of CF-derived metabolites and methylxanthines. On the basis of the outcomes of study part 1, and assessing the same outcome measures, part 2 of this investigation was a controlled, randomized, double-masked, 2-parallel-arm dietary intervention study in which healthy participants (aged 35-55 y) were asked to consume for 12 consecutive weeks up to 2000 mg CFs/d (n = 46) or a CF-free control (n = 28).

RESULTS

Daily intake of up to 2000 mg CFs/d for 12 wk was not associated with significant changes in blood pressure or platelet function compared with CF-free controls in normotensive, healthy individuals who exhibited a very low risk of cardiovascular disease. There were no clinically relevant changes in the metabolic variables assessed in either of the groups. AEs reported were classified as mild in severity and did not significantly differ between study arms.

CONCLUSION

The consumption of CFs in amounts up to 2000 mg/d for 12 wk was well tolerated in healthy men and women. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02447770 (part 1) and NCT02447783 (part 2).

Authors+Show Affiliations

Mars Inc., McLean, VA; and Departments of javier.ottaviani@mss.effem.com.Mars Inc., McLean, VA; and Departments of.Nutrition and.Nutrition and.Nutrition and.Nutrition and.Mars Inc., McLean, VA; and Departments of.Mars Inc., McLean, VA; and Departments of.Nutrition and Internal Medicine, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA.

Pub Type(s)

Comparative Study
Journal Article
Randomized Controlled Trial
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

26537937

Citation

Ottaviani, Javier I., et al. "Safety and Efficacy of Cocoa Flavanol Intake in Healthy Adults: a Randomized, Controlled, Double-masked Trial." The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 102, no. 6, 2015, pp. 1425-35.
Ottaviani JI, Balz M, Kimball J, et al. Safety and efficacy of cocoa flavanol intake in healthy adults: a randomized, controlled, double-masked trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2015;102(6):1425-35.
Ottaviani, J. I., Balz, M., Kimball, J., Ensunsa, J. L., Fong, R., Momma, T. Y., Kwik-Uribe, C., Schroeter, H., & Keen, C. L. (2015). Safety and efficacy of cocoa flavanol intake in healthy adults: a randomized, controlled, double-masked trial. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 102(6), 1425-35. https://doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.115.116178
Ottaviani JI, et al. Safety and Efficacy of Cocoa Flavanol Intake in Healthy Adults: a Randomized, Controlled, Double-masked Trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2015;102(6):1425-35. PubMed PMID: 26537937.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Safety and efficacy of cocoa flavanol intake in healthy adults: a randomized, controlled, double-masked trial. AU - Ottaviani,Javier I, AU - Balz,Marion, AU - Kimball,Jennifer, AU - Ensunsa,Jodi L, AU - Fong,Reedmond, AU - Momma,Tony Y, AU - Kwik-Uribe,Catherine, AU - Schroeter,Hagen, AU - Keen,Carl L, Y1 - 2015/11/04/ PY - 2015/06/01/received PY - 2015/09/23/accepted PY - 2015/11/6/entrez PY - 2015/11/6/pubmed PY - 2016/4/14/medline KW - cocoa KW - epicatechin KW - flavanol KW - procyanidin KW - safety SP - 1425 EP - 35 JF - The American journal of clinical nutrition JO - Am. J. Clin. Nutr. VL - 102 IS - 6 N2 - BACKGROUND: Evidence from dietary intervention studies shows that the intake of flavanols and procyanidins can be beneficial for cardiovascular health. Nevertheless, there is a clear need for advancing our understanding with regard to safe amounts of intake for these bioactives. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to investigate in healthy adults the effects of cocoa flavanol (CF) intake amount and intake duration on blood pressure, platelet function, metabolic variables, and potential adverse events (AEs). DESIGN: This investigation consisted of 2 parts. Part 1 was an open-label, intake-amount escalation study, in which 34 healthy adults (aged 35-55 y) consumed escalating amounts of CFs, ranging from 1000 to 2000 mg/d over 6 wk. Primary outcomes were blood pressure and platelet function, select metabolic variables, and the occurrence and severity of AEs. Secondary outcomes included plasma concentrations of CF-derived metabolites and methylxanthines. On the basis of the outcomes of study part 1, and assessing the same outcome measures, part 2 of this investigation was a controlled, randomized, double-masked, 2-parallel-arm dietary intervention study in which healthy participants (aged 35-55 y) were asked to consume for 12 consecutive weeks up to 2000 mg CFs/d (n = 46) or a CF-free control (n = 28). RESULTS: Daily intake of up to 2000 mg CFs/d for 12 wk was not associated with significant changes in blood pressure or platelet function compared with CF-free controls in normotensive, healthy individuals who exhibited a very low risk of cardiovascular disease. There were no clinically relevant changes in the metabolic variables assessed in either of the groups. AEs reported were classified as mild in severity and did not significantly differ between study arms. CONCLUSION: The consumption of CFs in amounts up to 2000 mg/d for 12 wk was well tolerated in healthy men and women. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02447770 (part 1) and NCT02447783 (part 2). SN - 1938-3207 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/26537937/Safety_and_efficacy_of_cocoa_flavanol_intake_in_healthy_adults:_a_randomized_controlled_double_masked_trial_ L2 - https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article-lookup/doi/10.3945/ajcn.115.116178 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -