Effectiveness of monovalent rotavirus vaccine in a high-income, predominant-use setting.Vaccine. 2015 Dec 16; 33(51):7307-7314.V
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES
We assessed monovalent rotavirus (RV1) vaccine effectiveness (VE) in a high-income setting with RV1 predominant use, and examined the burden of pediatric rotavirus gastroenteritis following the implementation of an RV1-only vaccination program.
We conducted active rotavirus gastroenteritis surveillance among children 8 weeks to <3 years of age at three hospitals. Participant information and vaccination histories were collected via parent/guardian interview and medical records. Stool specimens were tested for rotavirus; positive specimens were genotyped. The effect of increasing RV1 coverage on rotavirus prevalence was examined as a weekly time series via binomial regression with a log link function, using either categorical season or mean 2-dose rotavirus seasonal vaccine coverage as the exposure variable. As compared with RV1 vaccine formulation, rotavirus genotypes were classified as homotypic, partly-heterotypic, or heterotypic; prevalence of each was compared by season. A test-negative case-control design was used to examine RV1 VE against hospitalization or emergency visits.
We enrolled 866 participants in active surveillance; of these, 384 (44.3%) were eligible for VE analyses. After adjustment for season, we detected a 70.1% (95% CI: 21.9%, 88.6%) relative decrease in rotavirus prevalence in the 2013-14 season compared with 2012-13 season. On average, a 1% increase in ≥2-dose rotavirus coverage among children 1 year of age was associated with a 3.8% (95% CI: 1.8%, 5.8%) relative decrease in rotavirus prevalence. Rotavirus homotypic strain prevalence decreased, with 77% (95% CI: 68%, 89%) versus 8% (95% CI: 0%, 36%) prevalence during the 2011-12 and 2013-14 seasons, respectively. Adjusted 2-dose RV1 VE was 91.2% (95% CI: 61.6%, 98.0%).
RV1 vaccine was highly effective to prevent rotavirus hospitalizations and emergency visits among children <3 years of age in a high-income setting with its predominant use. Our estimates were similar to high-income settings with concurrent RV1 and pentavalent vaccine use.