Toxicological effects of bisphenol A on growth and antioxidant defense system in Oryza sativa as revealed by ultrastructure analysis.Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2016 Feb; 124:277-284.EE
The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of bisphenol A (BPA) on rice seedlings grown in a hydroponic system. The obtained results demonstrated that at lower concentration (up to 10µM) BPA had some stimulatory effects on the growth of rice seedlings but at higher doses it significantly inhibited seedlings growth. The photosynthetic pigments were significantly decreased by high doses of BPA. Exposure to BPA caused increased membrane permeability in root cells and resulted in increased concentration of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and increased lipid peroxidation as revealed by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay. In leaves, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity exhibited an increase at lower concentrations of BPA but was inhibited at the highest dose (200µM) of BPA. At 100µM of BPA, a significant increase in antioxidant activities in leaves was observed but at 200µM this activity was inhibited. In roots, a significant decrease in enzymes activity was recorded at the highest concentration of BPA (200µM); however, ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and catalase (CAT) activities were significantly increased at the concentrations of 10 and 50µM in comparison to the control. Moreover, the present results revealed that BPA severely affected cell organelles in rice seedlings. It can be concluded that the observed adverse effects in rice seedlings by BPA in the present study could be attributed to the oxidative stress caused by BPA.