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Dietary Patterns and Risk of Dementia: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Cohort Studies.

Abstract

Dietary patterns and some dietary components have been linked with dementia. We therefore performed a meta-analysis of available studies to determine whether there is an association between diet and risk of dementia. We included eligible articles and estimated risk ratio (RR) with 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CIs). Finally, there were 43 trials that met the inclusion standard. Some food intake was related with decrease of dementia, such as unsaturated fatty acids (RR: 0.84, 95 % CI: [0.74-0.95], P = 0.006), antioxidants (RR: 0.87, 95 % CI: [0.77-0.98], P = 0.026), vitamin B (RR: 0.72, 95 % CI: [0.54-0.96], P = 0.026), and the Mediterranean diet (MeDi) (RR: 0.69, 95 % CI: [0.57-0.84], P < 0.001). Some material intakes were related with increase of dementia, such as aluminum (RR: 2.24, 95 % CI: [1.49-3.37], P < 0.001), smoking (RR: 1.43, 95 % CI: [1.15-1.77], P = 0.001), and low levels of vitamin D (RR: 1.52, 95 % CI: [1.17-1.98], P = 0.002). The effect of some materials needs further investigation, such as fish (RR: 0.79, 95 % CI: [0.59-1.06], P = 0.113), vegetables and fruits (RR: 0.46, 95 % CI: [0.16-1.32], P = 0.149), and alcohol (RR: 0.74, 95 % CI: [0.55- 1.01], P = 0.056). Thus, the MeDi and higher consumption of unsaturated fatty acids, antioxidants, and B vitamins decrease the risk of dementia while smoking and higher consumption of aluminum increase the risk of dementia. Low levels of vitamin D were associated with cognitive decline. The effect of fish, vegetables, fruits, and alcohol needs further investigation. The findings will be of great significance to guide people to prevent dementia.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

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    Department of Neurology, Qingdao Municipal Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China.

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    Department of Neurology, Qingdao Municipal Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China. dr.tanlan@163.com. Department of Neurology, Qingdao Municipal Hospital, School of Medicine, Qingdao University, No. 5 Donghai Middle Road, Qingdao, Shandong Province, 266071, China. dr.tanlan@163.com.

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    Department of Neurology, Qingdao Municipal Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China.

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    Department of Neurology, Nanjing First Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China.

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    Department of Neurology, Qingdao Municipal Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China.

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    Department of Neurology, Qingdao Municipal Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China.

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    Department of Neurology, Qingdao Municipal Hospital, School of Medicine, Qingdao University, No. 5 Donghai Middle Road, Qingdao, Shandong Province, 266071, China.

    Department of Neurology, Qingdao Municipal Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China. yu-jintai@163.com. Department of Neurology, Qingdao Municipal Hospital, School of Medicine, Qingdao University, No. 5 Donghai Middle Road, Qingdao, Shandong Province, 266071, China. yu-jintai@163.com. Memory and Aging Center, Department of Neurology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, 94158, USA. yu-jintai@163.com.

    Source

    Molecular neurobiology 53:9 2016 Nov pg 6144-6154

    MeSH

    Antioxidants
    Cohort Studies
    Dementia
    Diet
    Humans
    Risk Factors
    Vitamin B Complex

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Meta-Analysis
    Review

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    26553347

    Citation

    TY - JOUR T1 - Dietary Patterns and Risk of Dementia: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Cohort Studies. AU - Cao,Lei, AU - Tan,Lan, AU - Wang,Hui-Fu, AU - Jiang,Teng, AU - Zhu,Xi-Chen, AU - Lu,Huan, AU - Tan,Meng-Shan, AU - Yu,Jin-Tai, Y1 - 2015/11/09/ PY - 2015/05/26/received PY - 2015/10/27/accepted PY - 2016/11/1/pubmed PY - 2018/1/30/medline PY - 2015/11/11/entrez KW - Alzheimer’s disease KW - Dementia KW - Diet KW - Dietary patterns KW - Meta-analysis KW - The Mediterranean diet SP - 6144 EP - 6154 JF - Molecular neurobiology JO - Mol. Neurobiol. VL - 53 IS - 9 N2 - Dietary patterns and some dietary components have been linked with dementia. We therefore performed a meta-analysis of available studies to determine whether there is an association between diet and risk of dementia. We included eligible articles and estimated risk ratio (RR) with 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CIs). Finally, there were 43 trials that met the inclusion standard. Some food intake was related with decrease of dementia, such as unsaturated fatty acids (RR: 0.84, 95 % CI: [0.74-0.95], P = 0.006), antioxidants (RR: 0.87, 95 % CI: [0.77-0.98], P = 0.026), vitamin B (RR: 0.72, 95 % CI: [0.54-0.96], P = 0.026), and the Mediterranean diet (MeDi) (RR: 0.69, 95 % CI: [0.57-0.84], P < 0.001). Some material intakes were related with increase of dementia, such as aluminum (RR: 2.24, 95 % CI: [1.49-3.37], P < 0.001), smoking (RR: 1.43, 95 % CI: [1.15-1.77], P = 0.001), and low levels of vitamin D (RR: 1.52, 95 % CI: [1.17-1.98], P = 0.002). The effect of some materials needs further investigation, such as fish (RR: 0.79, 95 % CI: [0.59-1.06], P = 0.113), vegetables and fruits (RR: 0.46, 95 % CI: [0.16-1.32], P = 0.149), and alcohol (RR: 0.74, 95 % CI: [0.55- 1.01], P = 0.056). Thus, the MeDi and higher consumption of unsaturated fatty acids, antioxidants, and B vitamins decrease the risk of dementia while smoking and higher consumption of aluminum increase the risk of dementia. Low levels of vitamin D were associated with cognitive decline. The effect of fish, vegetables, fruits, and alcohol needs further investigation. The findings will be of great significance to guide people to prevent dementia. SN - 1559-1182 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/26553347/full_citation L2 - https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12035-015-9516-4 ER -