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Nutritional Modulation of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Insulin Resistance.

Abstract

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) covers a spectrum of disorders ranging from simple steatosis (non-alcoholic fatty liver, NAFL) to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and cirrhosis. NAFL increases the risk of liver fibrosis. If the liver is fatty due to causes of insulin resistance such as obesity and physical inactivity, it overproduces glucose and triglycerides leading to hyperinsulinemia and a low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentration. The latter features predispose to type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Understanding the impact of nutritional modulation of liver fat content and insulin resistance is therefore of interest for prevention and treatment of NAFLD. Hypocaloric, especially low carbohydrate ketogenic diets rapidly decrease liver fat content and associated metabolic abnormalities. However, any type of caloric restriction seems effective long-term. Isocaloric diets containing 16%-23% fat and 57%-65% carbohydrate lower liver fat compared to diets with 43%-55% fat and 27%-38% carbohydrate. Diets rich in saturated (SFA) as compared to monounsaturated (MUFA) or polyunsaturated (PUFA) fatty acids appear particularly harmful as they increase both liver fat and insulin resistance. Overfeeding either saturated fat or carbohydrate increases liver fat content. Vitamin E supplementation decreases liver fat content as well as fibrosis but has no effect on features of insulin resistance.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    Department of Medicine, University of Helsinki, and Minerva Foundation Institute for Medical Research, Haartmaninkatu 8, 00290 Helsinki, Finland. Hannele.Yki-Jarvinen@helsinki.fi.

    Source

    Nutrients 7:11 2015 Nov 05 pg 9127-38

    MeSH

    Caloric Restriction
    Dietary Carbohydrates
    Dietary Fats
    Humans
    Insulin Resistance
    Liver
    Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease
    Vitamin E

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
    Review

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    26556368

    Citation

    Yki-Järvinen, Hannele. "Nutritional Modulation of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Insulin Resistance." Nutrients, vol. 7, no. 11, 2015, pp. 9127-38.
    Yki-Järvinen H. Nutritional Modulation of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Insulin Resistance. Nutrients. 2015;7(11):9127-38.
    Yki-Järvinen, H. (2015). Nutritional Modulation of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Insulin Resistance. Nutrients, 7(11), pp. 9127-38. doi:10.3390/nu7115454.
    Yki-Järvinen H. Nutritional Modulation of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Insulin Resistance. Nutrients. 2015 Nov 5;7(11):9127-38. PubMed PMID: 26556368.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Nutritional Modulation of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Insulin Resistance. A1 - Yki-Järvinen,Hannele, Y1 - 2015/11/05/ PY - 2015/08/17/received PY - 2015/10/07/revised PY - 2015/10/09/accepted PY - 2015/11/12/entrez PY - 2015/11/12/pubmed PY - 2016/8/17/medline KW - carbohydrate KW - fructose KW - liver fat KW - saturated fat KW - steatosis. SP - 9127 EP - 38 JF - Nutrients JO - Nutrients VL - 7 IS - 11 N2 - Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) covers a spectrum of disorders ranging from simple steatosis (non-alcoholic fatty liver, NAFL) to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and cirrhosis. NAFL increases the risk of liver fibrosis. If the liver is fatty due to causes of insulin resistance such as obesity and physical inactivity, it overproduces glucose and triglycerides leading to hyperinsulinemia and a low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentration. The latter features predispose to type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Understanding the impact of nutritional modulation of liver fat content and insulin resistance is therefore of interest for prevention and treatment of NAFLD. Hypocaloric, especially low carbohydrate ketogenic diets rapidly decrease liver fat content and associated metabolic abnormalities. However, any type of caloric restriction seems effective long-term. Isocaloric diets containing 16%-23% fat and 57%-65% carbohydrate lower liver fat compared to diets with 43%-55% fat and 27%-38% carbohydrate. Diets rich in saturated (SFA) as compared to monounsaturated (MUFA) or polyunsaturated (PUFA) fatty acids appear particularly harmful as they increase both liver fat and insulin resistance. Overfeeding either saturated fat or carbohydrate increases liver fat content. Vitamin E supplementation decreases liver fat content as well as fibrosis but has no effect on features of insulin resistance. SN - 2072-6643 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/26556368/full_citation L2 - http://www.mdpi.com/resolver?pii=nu7115454 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -