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Vaccenic acid and trans fatty acid isomers from partially hydrogenated oil both adversely affect LDL cholesterol: a double-blind, randomized controlled trial.

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Adverse effects of industrially produced trans fatty acids (iTFAs) on the risk of coronary artery disease are well documented in the scientific literature; however, effects of naturally occurring trans fatty acids (TFAs) from ruminant animals (rTFA), such as vaccenic acid (VA) and cis-9,trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid (c9,t11-CLA), are less clear. Although animal and cell studies suggest that VA and c9,t11-CLA may be hypocholesterolemic and antiatherogenic, epidemiologic data comparing rTFAs and iTFAs are inconsistent, and human intervention studies have been limited, underpowered, and not well controlled.

OBJECTIVE

We determined the effects of VA, c9,t11-CLA, and iTFA, in the context of highly controlled diets (24 d each), on lipoprotein risk factors compared with a control diet.

RESULTS

We conducted a double-blind, randomized, crossover feeding trial in 106 healthy adults [mean ± SD age: 47 ± 10.8 y; body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 28.5 ± 4.0; low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol: 3.24 ± 0.63 mmol/L]. Diets were designed to have stearic acid replaced with the following TFA isomers (percentage of energy): 0.1% mixed isomers of TFA (control), ∼3% VA, ∼3% iTFA, or 1% c9,t11-CLA. Total dietary fat (34% of energy) and other macronutrients were matched. Total cholesterol (TC), LDL cholesterol, triacylglycerol, lipoprotein(a), and apolipoprotein B were higher after VA than after iTFA; high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and apolipoprotein AI also were higher after VA. Compared with control, VA and iTFA both increased TC, LDL cholesterol, ratio of TC to HDL cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B (2-6% change; P < 0.05); VA also increased HDL cholesterol, apolipoprotein AI, apolipoprotein B, and lipoprotein(a) (2-6% change; P < 0.05), whereas iTFA did not. c9,t11-CLA lowered triacylglycerol (P ≤ 0.01) and had no effect on other lipoprotein risk factors.

CONCLUSIONS

With respect to risk of cardiovascular disease, these results are consistent with current nutrition labeling guidelines, with the requirement of VA, but not c9,t11-CLA, to be listed under TFA on the Nutrition Facts Panel. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00942656.

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  • Publisher Full Text
  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    USDA, Agricultural Research Service, Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center, Beltsville, MD;

    ,

    Nestlé Research Center, Lausanne, Switzerland; and.

    ,

    Nestlé Research Center, Lausanne, Switzerland; and.

    ,

    Children's Hospital Oakland Research Institute, Oakland, CA.

    USDA, Agricultural Research Service, Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center, Beltsville, MD; david.baer@ars.usda.gov.

    Source

    MeSH

    Adult
    Cardiovascular Diseases
    Cholesterol
    Cholesterol, LDL
    Cross-Over Studies
    Dietary Fats, Unsaturated
    Double-Blind Method
    Female
    Humans
    Hydrogenation
    Hypercholesterolemia
    Hypertriglyceridemia
    Linoleic Acids, Conjugated
    Male
    Middle Aged
    Oleic Acids
    Plant Oils
    Risk Factors
    Trans Fatty Acids
    Triglycerides

    Pub Type(s)

    Clinical Trial
    Comparative Study
    Journal Article
    Randomized Controlled Trial
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
    Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    26561632

    Citation

    Gebauer, Sarah K., et al. "Vaccenic Acid and Trans Fatty Acid Isomers From Partially Hydrogenated Oil Both Adversely Affect LDL Cholesterol: a Double-blind, Randomized Controlled Trial." The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 102, no. 6, 2015, pp. 1339-46.
    Gebauer SK, Destaillats F, Dionisi F, et al. Vaccenic acid and trans fatty acid isomers from partially hydrogenated oil both adversely affect LDL cholesterol: a double-blind, randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2015;102(6):1339-46.
    Gebauer, S. K., Destaillats, F., Dionisi, F., Krauss, R. M., & Baer, D. J. (2015). Vaccenic acid and trans fatty acid isomers from partially hydrogenated oil both adversely affect LDL cholesterol: a double-blind, randomized controlled trial. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 102(6), pp. 1339-46. doi:10.3945/ajcn.115.116129.
    Gebauer SK, et al. Vaccenic Acid and Trans Fatty Acid Isomers From Partially Hydrogenated Oil Both Adversely Affect LDL Cholesterol: a Double-blind, Randomized Controlled Trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2015;102(6):1339-46. PubMed PMID: 26561632.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Vaccenic acid and trans fatty acid isomers from partially hydrogenated oil both adversely affect LDL cholesterol: a double-blind, randomized controlled trial. AU - Gebauer,Sarah K, AU - Destaillats,Frédéric, AU - Dionisi,Fabiola, AU - Krauss,Ronald M, AU - Baer,David J, Y1 - 2015/11/11/ PY - 2015/05/28/received PY - 2015/09/15/accepted PY - 2015/11/13/entrez PY - 2015/11/13/pubmed PY - 2016/4/14/medline KW - cardiovascular disease risk KW - industrial trans fatty acids KW - partially hydrogenated vegetable oil KW - ruminant trans fatty acids KW - vaccenic acid SP - 1339 EP - 46 JF - The American journal of clinical nutrition JO - Am. J. Clin. Nutr. VL - 102 IS - 6 N2 - BACKGROUND: Adverse effects of industrially produced trans fatty acids (iTFAs) on the risk of coronary artery disease are well documented in the scientific literature; however, effects of naturally occurring trans fatty acids (TFAs) from ruminant animals (rTFA), such as vaccenic acid (VA) and cis-9,trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid (c9,t11-CLA), are less clear. Although animal and cell studies suggest that VA and c9,t11-CLA may be hypocholesterolemic and antiatherogenic, epidemiologic data comparing rTFAs and iTFAs are inconsistent, and human intervention studies have been limited, underpowered, and not well controlled. OBJECTIVE: We determined the effects of VA, c9,t11-CLA, and iTFA, in the context of highly controlled diets (24 d each), on lipoprotein risk factors compared with a control diet. RESULTS: We conducted a double-blind, randomized, crossover feeding trial in 106 healthy adults [mean ± SD age: 47 ± 10.8 y; body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 28.5 ± 4.0; low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol: 3.24 ± 0.63 mmol/L]. Diets were designed to have stearic acid replaced with the following TFA isomers (percentage of energy): 0.1% mixed isomers of TFA (control), ∼3% VA, ∼3% iTFA, or 1% c9,t11-CLA. Total dietary fat (34% of energy) and other macronutrients were matched. Total cholesterol (TC), LDL cholesterol, triacylglycerol, lipoprotein(a), and apolipoprotein B were higher after VA than after iTFA; high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and apolipoprotein AI also were higher after VA. Compared with control, VA and iTFA both increased TC, LDL cholesterol, ratio of TC to HDL cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B (2-6% change; P < 0.05); VA also increased HDL cholesterol, apolipoprotein AI, apolipoprotein B, and lipoprotein(a) (2-6% change; P < 0.05), whereas iTFA did not. c9,t11-CLA lowered triacylglycerol (P ≤ 0.01) and had no effect on other lipoprotein risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: With respect to risk of cardiovascular disease, these results are consistent with current nutrition labeling guidelines, with the requirement of VA, but not c9,t11-CLA, to be listed under TFA on the Nutrition Facts Panel. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00942656. SN - 1938-3207 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/26561632/Vaccenic_acid_and_trans_fatty_acid_isomers_from_partially_hydrogenated_oil_both_adversely_affect_LDL_cholesterol:_a_double_blind_randomized_controlled_trial_ L2 - https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article-lookup/doi/10.3945/ajcn.115.116129 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -