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Vitamin D status and its determinants during autumn in children at northern latitudes: a cross-sectional analysis from the optimal well-being, development and health for Danish children through a healthy New Nordic Diet (OPUS) School Meal Study.
Br J Nutr. 2016 Jan 28; 115(2):239-50.BJ

Abstract

Sufficient summer/autumn vitamin D status appears important to mitigate winter nadirs at northern latitudes. We conducted a cross-sectional study to evaluate autumn vitamin D status and its determinants in 782 Danish 8-11-year-old children (55°N) using baseline data from the Optimal well-being, development and health for Danish children through a healthy New Nordic Diet (OPUS) School Meal Study, a large randomised controlled trial. Blood samples and demographic and behavioural data, including 7-d dietary recordings, objectively measured physical activity, and time spent outdoors during school hours, were collected during September-November. Mean serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) was 60·8 (sd 18·7) nmol/l. Serum 25(OH)D levels ≤50 nmol/l were found in 28·4 % of the children and 2·4 % had concentrations <25 nmol/l. Upon multivariate adjustment, increasing age (per year) (β -2·9; 95 % CI -5·1, -0·7 nmol/l), female sex (β -3·3; 95 % CI -5·9, -0·7 nmol/l), sampling in October (β -5·2; 95 % CI -10·1, -0·4 nmol/l) and November (β -13·3; 95 % CI -17·7, -9·1), and non-white ethnicity (β -5·7; 95 % CI -11·1, -0·3 nmol/l) were negatively associated with 25(OH)D (all P<0·05). Likewise, immigrant/descendant background was negatively associated with 25(OH)D, particularly in females (β -16·3; 95 % CI -21·9, -10·7) (P<0·001) (P interaction=0·003). Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) (min/d) (β 0·06; 95 % CI 0·01, 0·12), outdoor walking during school hours (min/week) (β 0·4; 95 % CI 0·1, 0·6) and intake of vitamin D-containing supplements ≥3 d/week (β 8·7; 95 % CI 6·4, 11·0) were positively associated with 25(OH)D (all P<0·05). The high proportion of children with vitamin D status below the recommended sufficiency level of 50 nmol/l raises concern as levels expectedly drop further during winter months. Frequent intake of vitamin D supplements was strongly associated with status. MVPA and outdoor activity during school hours should be investigated further in interventions to improve autumn vitamin D status in children at northern latitudes.

Authors+Show Affiliations

1Department of Nutrition,Exercise and Sports, Faculty of Science,University of Copenhagen,Rolighedsvej 26,1958 Frederiksberg C,Denmark.1Department of Nutrition,Exercise and Sports, Faculty of Science,University of Copenhagen,Rolighedsvej 26,1958 Frederiksberg C,Denmark.1Department of Nutrition,Exercise and Sports, Faculty of Science,University of Copenhagen,Rolighedsvej 26,1958 Frederiksberg C,Denmark.1Department of Nutrition,Exercise and Sports, Faculty of Science,University of Copenhagen,Rolighedsvej 26,1958 Frederiksberg C,Denmark.1Department of Nutrition,Exercise and Sports, Faculty of Science,University of Copenhagen,Rolighedsvej 26,1958 Frederiksberg C,Denmark.1Department of Nutrition,Exercise and Sports, Faculty of Science,University of Copenhagen,Rolighedsvej 26,1958 Frederiksberg C,Denmark.1Department of Nutrition,Exercise and Sports, Faculty of Science,University of Copenhagen,Rolighedsvej 26,1958 Frederiksberg C,Denmark.2Division of Nutrition,The National Food Institute,Technical University of Denmark,Mørkhøj Bygade 19,2860 Søborg,Denmark.2Division of Nutrition,The National Food Institute,Technical University of Denmark,Mørkhøj Bygade 19,2860 Søborg,Denmark.3Department of Clinical Biochemistry,Section of Molecular Diagnostics,Aalborg University Hospital,Hobrovej 18-22,9000 Aalborg,Denmark.1Department of Nutrition,Exercise and Sports, Faculty of Science,University of Copenhagen,Rolighedsvej 26,1958 Frederiksberg C,Denmark.1Department of Nutrition,Exercise and Sports, Faculty of Science,University of Copenhagen,Rolighedsvej 26,1958 Frederiksberg C,Denmark.1Department of Nutrition,Exercise and Sports, Faculty of Science,University of Copenhagen,Rolighedsvej 26,1958 Frederiksberg C,Denmark.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Randomized Controlled Trial
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

26563915

Citation

Petersen, Rikke A., et al. "Vitamin D Status and Its Determinants During Autumn in Children at Northern Latitudes: a Cross-sectional Analysis From the Optimal Well-being, Development and Health for Danish Children Through a Healthy New Nordic Diet (OPUS) School Meal Study." The British Journal of Nutrition, vol. 115, no. 2, 2016, pp. 239-50.
Petersen RA, Damsgaard CT, Dalskov SM, et al. Vitamin D status and its determinants during autumn in children at northern latitudes: a cross-sectional analysis from the optimal well-being, development and health for Danish children through a healthy New Nordic Diet (OPUS) School Meal Study. Br J Nutr. 2016;115(2):239-50.
Petersen, R. A., Damsgaard, C. T., Dalskov, S. M., Sørensen, L. B., Hjorth, M. F., Ritz, C., Kjølbæk, L., Andersen, R., Tetens, I., Krarup, H., Astrup, A., Michaelsen, K. F., & Mølgaard, C. (2016). Vitamin D status and its determinants during autumn in children at northern latitudes: a cross-sectional analysis from the optimal well-being, development and health for Danish children through a healthy New Nordic Diet (OPUS) School Meal Study. The British Journal of Nutrition, 115(2), 239-50. https://doi.org/10.1017/S000711451500433X
Petersen RA, et al. Vitamin D Status and Its Determinants During Autumn in Children at Northern Latitudes: a Cross-sectional Analysis From the Optimal Well-being, Development and Health for Danish Children Through a Healthy New Nordic Diet (OPUS) School Meal Study. Br J Nutr. 2016 Jan 28;115(2):239-50. PubMed PMID: 26563915.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Vitamin D status and its determinants during autumn in children at northern latitudes: a cross-sectional analysis from the optimal well-being, development and health for Danish children through a healthy New Nordic Diet (OPUS) School Meal Study. AU - Petersen,Rikke A, AU - Damsgaard,Camilla T, AU - Dalskov,Stine-Mathilde, AU - Sørensen,Louise B, AU - Hjorth,Mads F, AU - Ritz,Christian, AU - Kjølbæk,Louise, AU - Andersen,Rikke, AU - Tetens,Inge, AU - Krarup,Henrik, AU - Astrup,Arne, AU - Michaelsen,Kim F, AU - Mølgaard,Christian, Y1 - 2015/11/13/ PY - 2015/11/14/entrez PY - 2015/11/14/pubmed PY - 2016/4/22/medline KW - Children KW - DHA docosahexanoic acid KW - Determinants KW - EI energy intake KW - MVPA moderate-to-vigorous physical activity KW - Northern latitudes KW - OPUS optimal well-being KW - Vitamin D KW - development and health for Danish children through a healthy New Nordic Diet SP - 239 EP - 50 JF - The British journal of nutrition JO - Br J Nutr VL - 115 IS - 2 N2 - Sufficient summer/autumn vitamin D status appears important to mitigate winter nadirs at northern latitudes. We conducted a cross-sectional study to evaluate autumn vitamin D status and its determinants in 782 Danish 8-11-year-old children (55°N) using baseline data from the Optimal well-being, development and health for Danish children through a healthy New Nordic Diet (OPUS) School Meal Study, a large randomised controlled trial. Blood samples and demographic and behavioural data, including 7-d dietary recordings, objectively measured physical activity, and time spent outdoors during school hours, were collected during September-November. Mean serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) was 60·8 (sd 18·7) nmol/l. Serum 25(OH)D levels ≤50 nmol/l were found in 28·4 % of the children and 2·4 % had concentrations <25 nmol/l. Upon multivariate adjustment, increasing age (per year) (β -2·9; 95 % CI -5·1, -0·7 nmol/l), female sex (β -3·3; 95 % CI -5·9, -0·7 nmol/l), sampling in October (β -5·2; 95 % CI -10·1, -0·4 nmol/l) and November (β -13·3; 95 % CI -17·7, -9·1), and non-white ethnicity (β -5·7; 95 % CI -11·1, -0·3 nmol/l) were negatively associated with 25(OH)D (all P<0·05). Likewise, immigrant/descendant background was negatively associated with 25(OH)D, particularly in females (β -16·3; 95 % CI -21·9, -10·7) (P<0·001) (P interaction=0·003). Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) (min/d) (β 0·06; 95 % CI 0·01, 0·12), outdoor walking during school hours (min/week) (β 0·4; 95 % CI 0·1, 0·6) and intake of vitamin D-containing supplements ≥3 d/week (β 8·7; 95 % CI 6·4, 11·0) were positively associated with 25(OH)D (all P<0·05). The high proportion of children with vitamin D status below the recommended sufficiency level of 50 nmol/l raises concern as levels expectedly drop further during winter months. Frequent intake of vitamin D supplements was strongly associated with status. MVPA and outdoor activity during school hours should be investigated further in interventions to improve autumn vitamin D status in children at northern latitudes. SN - 1475-2662 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/26563915/Vitamin_D_status_and_its_determinants_during_autumn_in_children_at_northern_latitudes:_a_cross_sectional_analysis_from_the_optimal_well_being_development_and_health_for_Danish_children_through_a_healthy_New_Nordic_Diet__OPUS__School_Meal_Study_ L2 - https://www.cambridge.org/core/product/identifier/S000711451500433X/type/journal_article DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -