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Decreasing the number of small eating occasions (<15 % of total energy intake) regardless of the time of day may be important to improve diet quality but not adiposity: a cross-sectional study in British children and adolescents.
Br J Nutr. 2016 Jan 28; 115(2):332-41.BJ

Abstract

Evidence of associations between meal frequency (MF) and snack frequency (SF) and diet and obesity in young populations is limited. This cross-sectional study examined MF and SF in relation to dietary intake and adiposity measures in British children aged 4-10 years (n 818) and adolescents aged 11-18 years (n 818). Based on data from a 7-d weighed dietary record, all eating occasions were divided into meals or snacks on the basis of contribution to energy intake (≥15 or <15 %) or time (06.00-10.00, 12.00-15.00 and 18.00-21.00 hours or others). All measures of MF and SF showed positive associations with energy intake, except for MF based on energy contribution in children. Irrespective of the definition of snacks, SF was associated with higher intakes of soft drinks, confectionery and total sugar, lower intakes of cereals, fish, meat, protein, PUFA, starch and dietary fibre, and a lower diet quality (assessed by the Mediterranean diet score, except for SF based on energy contribution in adolescents). MF based on time, but not based on energy contribution, was associated with higher intakes of confectionery and total sugar, lower intakes of fish, protein, PUFA and starch, and, only in children, a lower diet quality. All measures of MF and SF showed no association with adiposity measures. In conclusion, this cross-sectional study in British children and adolescents suggests that decreasing the number of small eating occasions (<15 % of total energy intake) regardless of the time of day may be important to improve diet quality but not adiposity.

Authors+Show Affiliations

1Department of Nutrition,School of Human Cultures,University of Shiga Prefecture,Shiga,Hikone,Shiga 522 8533,Japan.2Northern Ireland Centre for Food and Health,Ulster University,Coleraine BT52 1SA,UK.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

26568443

Citation

Murakami, Kentaro, and M Barbara E. Livingstone. "Decreasing the Number of Small Eating Occasions (<15 % of Total Energy Intake) Regardless of the Time of Day May Be Important to Improve Diet Quality but Not Adiposity: a Cross-sectional Study in British Children and Adolescents." The British Journal of Nutrition, vol. 115, no. 2, 2016, pp. 332-41.
Murakami K, Livingstone MB. Decreasing the number of small eating occasions (<15 % of total energy intake) regardless of the time of day may be important to improve diet quality but not adiposity: a cross-sectional study in British children and adolescents. Br J Nutr. 2016;115(2):332-41.
Murakami, K., & Livingstone, M. B. (2016). Decreasing the number of small eating occasions (<15 % of total energy intake) regardless of the time of day may be important to improve diet quality but not adiposity: a cross-sectional study in British children and adolescents. The British Journal of Nutrition, 115(2), 332-41. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0007114515004420
Murakami K, Livingstone MB. Decreasing the Number of Small Eating Occasions (<15 % of Total Energy Intake) Regardless of the Time of Day May Be Important to Improve Diet Quality but Not Adiposity: a Cross-sectional Study in British Children and Adolescents. Br J Nutr. 2016 Jan 28;115(2):332-41. PubMed PMID: 26568443.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Decreasing the number of small eating occasions (<15 % of total energy intake) regardless of the time of day may be important to improve diet quality but not adiposity: a cross-sectional study in British children and adolescents. AU - Murakami,Kentaro, AU - Livingstone,M Barbara E, Y1 - 2015/11/16/ PY - 2015/11/17/entrez PY - 2015/11/17/pubmed PY - 2016/4/22/medline KW - Adolescents KW - Children KW - EER estimated energy requirement KW - EF eating frequency KW - EI energy intake KW - MDS Mediterranean diet score KW - MF meal frequency KW - MFenergy% MF determined based on percentage contribution to total EI KW - MFtime MF determined based on the time consumed KW - Meal frequency KW - NDNS National Diet and Nutrition Survey KW - SF snack frequency KW - SFenergy% SF determined based on percentage contribution to total EI KW - SFtime SF determined based on the time consumed KW - Snack frequency KW - WHtR waist:height ratio SP - 332 EP - 41 JF - The British journal of nutrition JO - Br J Nutr VL - 115 IS - 2 N2 - Evidence of associations between meal frequency (MF) and snack frequency (SF) and diet and obesity in young populations is limited. This cross-sectional study examined MF and SF in relation to dietary intake and adiposity measures in British children aged 4-10 years (n 818) and adolescents aged 11-18 years (n 818). Based on data from a 7-d weighed dietary record, all eating occasions were divided into meals or snacks on the basis of contribution to energy intake (≥15 or <15 %) or time (06.00-10.00, 12.00-15.00 and 18.00-21.00 hours or others). All measures of MF and SF showed positive associations with energy intake, except for MF based on energy contribution in children. Irrespective of the definition of snacks, SF was associated with higher intakes of soft drinks, confectionery and total sugar, lower intakes of cereals, fish, meat, protein, PUFA, starch and dietary fibre, and a lower diet quality (assessed by the Mediterranean diet score, except for SF based on energy contribution in adolescents). MF based on time, but not based on energy contribution, was associated with higher intakes of confectionery and total sugar, lower intakes of fish, protein, PUFA and starch, and, only in children, a lower diet quality. All measures of MF and SF showed no association with adiposity measures. In conclusion, this cross-sectional study in British children and adolescents suggests that decreasing the number of small eating occasions (<15 % of total energy intake) regardless of the time of day may be important to improve diet quality but not adiposity. SN - 1475-2662 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/26568443/Decreasing_the_number_of_small_eating_occasions__<15__of_total_energy_intake__regardless_of_the_time_of_day_may_be_important_to_improve_diet_quality_but_not_adiposity:_a_cross_sectional_study_in_British_children_and_adolescents_ L2 - https://www.cambridge.org/core/product/identifier/S0007114515004420/type/journal_article DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -