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Protective Mechanisms of Flavonoids in Parkinson's Disease.
Parkinson's disease is a chronic, debilitating neurodegenerative movement disorder characterized by progressive degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta region in human midbrain. To date, oxidative stress is the well accepted concept in the etiology and progression of Parkinson's disease. Hence, the therapeutic agent is targeted against suppressing and alleviating the oxidative stress-induced cellular damage. Within the past decades, an explosion of research discoveries has reported on the protective mechanisms of flavonoids, which are plant-based polyphenols, in the treatment of neurodegenerative disease using both in vitro and in vivo models. In this paper, we have reviewed the literature on the neuroprotective mechanisms of flavonoids in protecting the dopaminergic neurons hence reducing the symptoms of this movement disorder. The mechanism reviewed includes effect of flavonoids in activation of endogenous antioxidant enzymes, suppressing the lipid peroxidation, inhibition of inflammatory mediators, flavonoids as a mitochondrial target therapy, and modulation of gene expression in neuronal cells.
Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine and Health, International Medical University, Bukit Jalil, 57000 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.,
Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine and Health, International Medical University, Bukit Jalil, 57000 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
Discipline of Biomedicine, College of Public Health, Medical and Veterinary Sciences, James Cook University, Townsville, QLD 4811, Australia.
Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
Reactive Oxygen Species
Pub Type(s)Journal Article