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Antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidant activity of Olea africana against pathogenic yeast and nosocomial pathogens.
BMC Complement Altern Med. 2015 Nov 17; 15:409.BC

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Olea africana leaves are used by Bapedi people to treat different ailments. The use of these leaves is not validated, therefore the aim of this study is to validate antimicrobial properties of this plant.

METHODS

The ground leaves were extracted using solvents of varying polarity (hexane, chloroform, dichloromethane (DCM), ethyl acetate, acetone, ethanol, methanol, butanol and water). Thin layer chromatography (TLC) was used to analyse the chemical constituents of the extracts. The TLC plates were developed in three different solvent systems, namely, benzene/ethanol/ammonium solution (BEA), chloroform/ethyl acetate/formic acid (CEF) and ethyl acetate/methanol/water (EMW). The micro-dilution assay and bioautography method were used to evaluate the antibacterial activity of the extracts against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus aureus and the antifungal activity against Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans.

RESULTS

Methanol was the best extractant, yielding a larger amount of plant material whereas hexane yielded the least amount. In phytochemical analyses, more compounds were observed in BEA, followed by EMW and CEF. Qualitative 2, 2- diphenylpacryl-1-hydrazyl (DPPH) assay displayed that all the extracts had antioxidant activity. Antioxidant compounds could not be separated using BEA solvent system while with CEF and EMW enabled antioxidant compounds separation. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) values against test bacteria ranged between 0.16 and 2.50 mg/mL whereas against fungi, MIC ranged from 0.16 to 0.63 mg/mL. Bioautography results demonstrated that more than one compound was responsible for antimicrobial activity in the microdilution assay as the compounds were located at different Rf values.

CONCLUSIONS

The results indicate that leaf extracts of Olea africana contain compounds with antioxidant, antibacterial and antifungal activities. Therefore, further studies are required to isolate the active compounds and perform other tests such as cytotoxicity. Olea africana may be a potential source of antimicrobial compounds.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Biochemistry, Microbiology and Biotechnology, University of Limpopo, Private bag X1106, Sovenga, 0727, South Africa. Peter.Masoko@ul.ac.za.Department of Biochemistry, Microbiology and Biotechnology, University of Limpopo, Private bag X1106, Sovenga, 0727, South Africa. polokwanedavid@gmail.com.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Validation Study

Language

eng

PubMed ID

26577343

Citation

Masoko, Peter, and David M. Makgapeetja. "Antibacterial, Antifungal and Antioxidant Activity of Olea Africana Against Pathogenic Yeast and Nosocomial Pathogens." BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 15, 2015, p. 409.
Masoko P, Makgapeetja DM. Antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidant activity of Olea africana against pathogenic yeast and nosocomial pathogens. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2015;15:409.
Masoko, P., & Makgapeetja, D. M. (2015). Antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidant activity of Olea africana against pathogenic yeast and nosocomial pathogens. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 15, 409. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12906-015-0941-8
Masoko P, Makgapeetja DM. Antibacterial, Antifungal and Antioxidant Activity of Olea Africana Against Pathogenic Yeast and Nosocomial Pathogens. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2015 Nov 17;15:409. PubMed PMID: 26577343.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidant activity of Olea africana against pathogenic yeast and nosocomial pathogens. AU - Masoko,Peter, AU - Makgapeetja,David M, Y1 - 2015/11/17/ PY - 2015/03/10/received PY - 2015/11/17/accepted PY - 2015/11/19/entrez PY - 2015/11/19/pubmed PY - 2016/4/15/medline SP - 409 EP - 409 JF - BMC complementary and alternative medicine JO - BMC Complement Altern Med VL - 15 N2 - BACKGROUND: Olea africana leaves are used by Bapedi people to treat different ailments. The use of these leaves is not validated, therefore the aim of this study is to validate antimicrobial properties of this plant. METHODS: The ground leaves were extracted using solvents of varying polarity (hexane, chloroform, dichloromethane (DCM), ethyl acetate, acetone, ethanol, methanol, butanol and water). Thin layer chromatography (TLC) was used to analyse the chemical constituents of the extracts. The TLC plates were developed in three different solvent systems, namely, benzene/ethanol/ammonium solution (BEA), chloroform/ethyl acetate/formic acid (CEF) and ethyl acetate/methanol/water (EMW). The micro-dilution assay and bioautography method were used to evaluate the antibacterial activity of the extracts against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus aureus and the antifungal activity against Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans. RESULTS: Methanol was the best extractant, yielding a larger amount of plant material whereas hexane yielded the least amount. In phytochemical analyses, more compounds were observed in BEA, followed by EMW and CEF. Qualitative 2, 2- diphenylpacryl-1-hydrazyl (DPPH) assay displayed that all the extracts had antioxidant activity. Antioxidant compounds could not be separated using BEA solvent system while with CEF and EMW enabled antioxidant compounds separation. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) values against test bacteria ranged between 0.16 and 2.50 mg/mL whereas against fungi, MIC ranged from 0.16 to 0.63 mg/mL. Bioautography results demonstrated that more than one compound was responsible for antimicrobial activity in the microdilution assay as the compounds were located at different Rf values. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that leaf extracts of Olea africana contain compounds with antioxidant, antibacterial and antifungal activities. Therefore, further studies are required to isolate the active compounds and perform other tests such as cytotoxicity. Olea africana may be a potential source of antimicrobial compounds. SN - 1472-6882 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/26577343/Antibacterial_antifungal_and_antioxidant_activity_of_Olea_africana_against_pathogenic_yeast_and_nosocomial_pathogens_ L2 - https://bmccomplementalternmed.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12906-015-0941-8 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -