In Vitro Fermentation of caprine milk oligosaccharides by bifidobacteria isolated from breast-fed infants.Gut Microbes. 2015; 6(6):352-63.GM
This study was conducted to investigate the catabolism and fermentation of caprine milk oligosaccharides (CMO) by selected bifidobacteria isolated from 4 breast-fed infants. Seventeen bifidobacterial isolates consisting of 3 different species (Bifidobacterium breve, Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum and Bifidobacterium bifidum) were investigated. A CMO-enriched fraction (CMOF) (50% oligosaccharides, 10% galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS), 20% lactose, 10% glucose and 10% galactose) from caprine cheese whey was added to a growth medium as a sole source of fermentable carbohydrate. The inclusion of the CMOF was associated with increased bifidobacterial growth for all strains compared to glucose, lactose, GOS, inulin, oligofructose, 3'-sialyl-lactose and 6'-sialyl-lactose. Only one B. bifidum strain (AGR2166) was able to utilize the sialyl-CMO, 3'-sialyl-lactose and 6'-sialyl-lactose, as carbohydrate sources. The inclusion of CMOF increased the production of acetic and lactic acid (P < 0.001) after 36 h of anaerobic fermentation at 37 °C, when compared to other fermentable substrates. Two B. bifidum strains (AGR2166 and AGR2168) utilised CMO, contained in the CMOF, to a greater extent than B. breve or B. longum subsp longum isolates, and this increased CMO utilization was associated with enhanced sialidase activity. CMOF stimulated bifidobacterial growth when compared to other tested fermentable carbohydrates and also increased the consumption of mono- and disaccharides, such as galactose and lactose present in the CMOF. These findings indicate that the dietary consumption of CMO may stimulate the growth and metabolism of intestinal Bifidobacteria spp. including B. bifidum typically found in the large intestine of breast-fed infants.