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Western diets induce blood-brain barrier leakage and alter spatial strategies in rats.

Abstract

Western diet (WD) intake induces obesity and metabolic dysfunction. The present study examined the effects of WD on hippocampal-dependent cognitive functioning and blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability as a function of exposure duration, obesity phenotype, and peripheral markers of energy regulation. The use of hippocampal-dependent "place" or hippocampal-independent "response" strategies in a Y maze was assessed in male rats following 10, 40, and 90 days of WD exposure in diet-induced obese (DIO) rats, in diet resistant (DR) rats that are relatively insensitive to the obesogenic properties of WD, and in chow-fed controls. Insulin, glucose, and BBB permeability throughout several loci in the hippocampus, striatum, and cerebellum were evaluated in relation to duration of WD exposure, obesity phenotype, and type of strategy used. DIO rats had increased body weight and adiposity throughout the study, and elevated 10-day glucose and 90-day insulin levels. Throughout the study, chow-fed and DR rats reliably relied on a place strategy. DIO rats, in contrast, favored a response strategy at the 10- and 90-day time points. BBB leakage was observed in the dorsal striatum and multiple subregions of the hippocampus of DIO, but not DR or chow-fed rats. Increased ventral hippocampal BBB permeability and blood glucose levels were associated with reduced place strategy use. These data indicate that WD-induced BBB leakage is dependent on duration of diet exposure as well as obesity phenotype, and implicates BBB leakage and impaired glucoregulation in behavioral strategy and cognitive performance.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Department of Psychology, Purdue University.

    ,

    Center for Behavioral Neuroscience, American University.

    ,

    School of Health Sciences, Purdue University.

    Department of Psychology, Purdue University.

    Source

    Behavioral neuroscience 130:1 2016 Feb pg 123-35

    MeSH

    Adipose Tissue
    Adiposity
    Analysis of Variance
    Animals
    Blood-Brain Barrier
    Body Weight
    Brain
    Cues
    Diet, Western
    Food Deprivation
    Male
    Maze Learning
    Rats
    Rats, Sprague-Dawley
    Spatial Learning
    Time Factors

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    26595878

    Citation

    Hargrave, Sara L., et al. "Western Diets Induce Blood-brain Barrier Leakage and Alter Spatial Strategies in Rats." Behavioral Neuroscience, vol. 130, no. 1, 2016, pp. 123-35.
    Hargrave SL, Davidson TL, Zheng W, et al. Western diets induce blood-brain barrier leakage and alter spatial strategies in rats. Behav Neurosci. 2016;130(1):123-35.
    Hargrave, S. L., Davidson, T. L., Zheng, W., & Kinzig, K. P. (2016). Western diets induce blood-brain barrier leakage and alter spatial strategies in rats. Behavioral Neuroscience, 130(1), pp. 123-35. doi:10.1037/bne0000110.
    Hargrave SL, et al. Western Diets Induce Blood-brain Barrier Leakage and Alter Spatial Strategies in Rats. Behav Neurosci. 2016;130(1):123-35. PubMed PMID: 26595878.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Western diets induce blood-brain barrier leakage and alter spatial strategies in rats. AU - Hargrave,Sara L, AU - Davidson,Terry L, AU - Zheng,Wei, AU - Kinzig,Kimberly P, Y1 - 2015/11/23/ PY - 2015/11/24/entrez PY - 2015/11/26/pubmed PY - 2016/10/19/medline SP - 123 EP - 35 JF - Behavioral neuroscience JO - Behav. Neurosci. VL - 130 IS - 1 N2 - Western diet (WD) intake induces obesity and metabolic dysfunction. The present study examined the effects of WD on hippocampal-dependent cognitive functioning and blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability as a function of exposure duration, obesity phenotype, and peripheral markers of energy regulation. The use of hippocampal-dependent "place" or hippocampal-independent "response" strategies in a Y maze was assessed in male rats following 10, 40, and 90 days of WD exposure in diet-induced obese (DIO) rats, in diet resistant (DR) rats that are relatively insensitive to the obesogenic properties of WD, and in chow-fed controls. Insulin, glucose, and BBB permeability throughout several loci in the hippocampus, striatum, and cerebellum were evaluated in relation to duration of WD exposure, obesity phenotype, and type of strategy used. DIO rats had increased body weight and adiposity throughout the study, and elevated 10-day glucose and 90-day insulin levels. Throughout the study, chow-fed and DR rats reliably relied on a place strategy. DIO rats, in contrast, favored a response strategy at the 10- and 90-day time points. BBB leakage was observed in the dorsal striatum and multiple subregions of the hippocampus of DIO, but not DR or chow-fed rats. Increased ventral hippocampal BBB permeability and blood glucose levels were associated with reduced place strategy use. These data indicate that WD-induced BBB leakage is dependent on duration of diet exposure as well as obesity phenotype, and implicates BBB leakage and impaired glucoregulation in behavioral strategy and cognitive performance. SN - 1939-0084 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/26595878/Western_diets_induce_blood_brain_barrier_leakage_and_alter_spatial_strategies_in_rats_ L2 - http://content.apa.org/journals/bne/130/1/123 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -