Tags

Type your tag names separated by a space and hit enter

Straw particle size in calf starters: Effects on digestive system development and rumen fermentation.
J Dairy Sci. 2016 Jan; 99(1):341-53.JD

Abstract

Two trials were conducted to determine effects of straw particle size in calf starter on rumen fermentation and development in calves. Holstein calves (n=17 in trial 1; n=25 in trial 2) were housed in individual pens; bedding (wood shavings) was covered with landscape fabric to completely avoid consumption of bedding. Milk replacer was fed at 12% of birth body weight per day and water offered free choice. Calves were randomly assigned to 4 treatments differing in geometric mean particle length (Xgm) of straw comprising 5% of starter dry matter. Straw was provided within the pellet at manufacture (PS; 0.82 mm Xgm) or mixed with the pellet at time of feeding at Xgm of 3.04 (SS), 7.10 (MS), or 12.7 (LS) mm. Calves (n=12; 3/treatment) in trial 1 were fitted with a rumen cannula by wk 2 of age. A fixed amount of starter that was adjusted with age and orts were fed through the cannula in cannulated calves. Calves were euthanized 6 wk after starter was offered (9 and 7 wk of age for trials 1 and 2, respectively). Rumen digesta pH linearly decreased with age, whereas volatile fatty acid concentration increased with age. Overall pH had a cubic trend with SS lower than that of PS and MS. Molar proportion of acetate decreased with age whereas propionate proportion increased. Overall molar proportions of volatile fatty acids were not affected by diet. Fecal Xgm was not different in spite of changes in diet particle size and rumen digesta of PS being greater than SS, MS, and LS at slaughter. Fecal pH and starch concentration were not affected by diet; however, pH decreased whereas starch content increased with age. Weight of stomach compartments, rumen papillae length and width, and rumen wall thickness did not differ between diets. Omasum weight as a percentage of body weight at harvest linearly decreased as straw particle size increased. Under the conditions of this study, modifying straw particle length in starter grain resulted in minimal rumen fermentation parameter changes and no changes in rumen development. Rumen pH and fermentation changes with age were likely effects of increasing starter intake.

Authors+Show Affiliations

The Pennsylvania State University, University Park 16802.The Pennsylvania State University, University Park 16802. Electronic address: ajh@psu.edu.The Pennsylvania State University, University Park 16802.Provimi North America, Brookville, OH 45309.Provimi North America, Brookville, OH 45309.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Randomized Controlled Trial

Language

eng

PubMed ID

26601592

Citation

Suarez-Mena, F X., et al. "Straw Particle Size in Calf Starters: Effects On Digestive System Development and Rumen Fermentation." Journal of Dairy Science, vol. 99, no. 1, 2016, pp. 341-53.
Suarez-Mena FX, Heinrichs AJ, Jones CM, et al. Straw particle size in calf starters: Effects on digestive system development and rumen fermentation. J Dairy Sci. 2016;99(1):341-53.
Suarez-Mena, F. X., Heinrichs, A. J., Jones, C. M., Hill, T. M., & Quigley, J. D. (2016). Straw particle size in calf starters: Effects on digestive system development and rumen fermentation. Journal of Dairy Science, 99(1), 341-53. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2015-9884
Suarez-Mena FX, et al. Straw Particle Size in Calf Starters: Effects On Digestive System Development and Rumen Fermentation. J Dairy Sci. 2016;99(1):341-53. PubMed PMID: 26601592.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Straw particle size in calf starters: Effects on digestive system development and rumen fermentation. AU - Suarez-Mena,F X, AU - Heinrichs,A J, AU - Jones,C M, AU - Hill,T M, AU - Quigley,J D, Y1 - 2015/11/18/ PY - 2015/05/29/received PY - 2015/08/24/accepted PY - 2015/11/26/entrez PY - 2015/11/26/pubmed PY - 2017/4/7/medline KW - calf KW - forage KW - particle size KW - rumen fermentation KW - straw SP - 341 EP - 53 JF - Journal of dairy science JO - J. Dairy Sci. VL - 99 IS - 1 N2 - Two trials were conducted to determine effects of straw particle size in calf starter on rumen fermentation and development in calves. Holstein calves (n=17 in trial 1; n=25 in trial 2) were housed in individual pens; bedding (wood shavings) was covered with landscape fabric to completely avoid consumption of bedding. Milk replacer was fed at 12% of birth body weight per day and water offered free choice. Calves were randomly assigned to 4 treatments differing in geometric mean particle length (Xgm) of straw comprising 5% of starter dry matter. Straw was provided within the pellet at manufacture (PS; 0.82 mm Xgm) or mixed with the pellet at time of feeding at Xgm of 3.04 (SS), 7.10 (MS), or 12.7 (LS) mm. Calves (n=12; 3/treatment) in trial 1 were fitted with a rumen cannula by wk 2 of age. A fixed amount of starter that was adjusted with age and orts were fed through the cannula in cannulated calves. Calves were euthanized 6 wk after starter was offered (9 and 7 wk of age for trials 1 and 2, respectively). Rumen digesta pH linearly decreased with age, whereas volatile fatty acid concentration increased with age. Overall pH had a cubic trend with SS lower than that of PS and MS. Molar proportion of acetate decreased with age whereas propionate proportion increased. Overall molar proportions of volatile fatty acids were not affected by diet. Fecal Xgm was not different in spite of changes in diet particle size and rumen digesta of PS being greater than SS, MS, and LS at slaughter. Fecal pH and starch concentration were not affected by diet; however, pH decreased whereas starch content increased with age. Weight of stomach compartments, rumen papillae length and width, and rumen wall thickness did not differ between diets. Omasum weight as a percentage of body weight at harvest linearly decreased as straw particle size increased. Under the conditions of this study, modifying straw particle length in starter grain resulted in minimal rumen fermentation parameter changes and no changes in rumen development. Rumen pH and fermentation changes with age were likely effects of increasing starter intake. SN - 1525-3198 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/26601592/Straw_particle_size_in_calf_starters:_Effects_on_digestive_system_development_and_rumen_fermentation_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0022-0302(15)00841-3 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -