Human Papillomavirus and Genital Warts: A Review of the Evidence for the 2015 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Sexually Transmitted Diseases Treatment Guidelines.Clin Infect Dis. 2015 Dec 15; 61 Suppl 8:S849-55.CI
To provide updates for the 2015 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines on human papillomavirus (HPV) and anogenital warts (AGWs), a review of the literature was conducted in key topic areas: (1) epidemiology and burden of disease; (2) transmission and natural history; (3) diagnosis and management of AGWs; (4) occupational exposure of healthcare workers; (5) anal cancer screening among men who have sex with men (MSM); and (6) HPV vaccine recommendations. Most sexually active persons will have detectable HPV at least once in their lifetime; 14 million persons are infected annually, and 79 million persons have prevalent infection. HPV is transmitted frequently between partners; more frequent transmission has been reported from females to males than from males to females. A new formulation of imiquimod (3.75% cream) is recommended for AGW treatment. Appropriate infection control, including performing laser or electrocautery in ventilated rooms using standard precautions, is recommended to prevent possible transmission to healthcare workers who treat anogenital warts, oral warts, and anogenital intraepithelial neoplasias (eg, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia). Data are insufficient to recommend routine anal cancer screening with anal cytology in persons living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS or HIV-negative MSM. An annual digital anorectal examination may be useful for early detection of anal cancer in these populations. HPV vaccine is recommended routinely for 11- or 12-year-olds, as well as for young men through age 21 years and young women through age 26 years who have not previously been vaccinated. HPV vaccine is also recommended for MSM, people living with HIV/AIDS, and immunocompromised persons through age 26 years.