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Unprecedented Melioidosis Cases in Northern Australia Caused by an Asian Burkholderia pseudomallei Strain Identified by Using Large-Scale Comparative Genomics.
Appl Environ Microbiol. 2016 02 01; 82(3):954-63.AE

Abstract

Melioidosis is a disease of humans and animals that is caused by the saprophytic bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei. Once thought to be confined to certain locations, the known presence of B. pseudomallei is expanding as more regions of endemicity are uncovered. There is no vaccine for melioidosis, and even with antibiotic administration, the mortality rate is as high as 40% in some regions that are endemic for the infection. Despite high levels of recombination, phylogenetic reconstruction of B. pseudomallei populations using whole-genome sequencing (WGS) has revealed surprisingly robust biogeographic separation between isolates from Australia and Asia. To date, there have been no confirmed autochthonous melioidosis cases in Australia caused by an Asian isolate; likewise, no autochthonous cases in Asia have been identified as Australian in origin. Here, we used comparative genomic analysis of 455 B. pseudomallei genomes to confirm the unprecedented presence of an Asian clone, sequence type 562 (ST-562), in Darwin, northern Australia. First observed in Darwin in 2005, the incidence of melioidosis cases attributable to ST-562 infection has steadily risen, and it is now a common strain in Darwin. Intriguingly, the Australian ST-562 appears to be geographically restricted to a single locale and is genetically less diverse than other common STs from this region, indicating a recent introduction of this clone into northern Australia. Detailed genomic and epidemiological investigations of new clinical and environmental B. pseudomallei isolates in the Darwin region and ST-562 isolates from Asia will be critical for understanding the origin, distribution, and dissemination of this emerging clone in northern Australia.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Global and Tropical Health Division, Menzies School of Health Research, Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia erin.price@menzies.edu.au.Global and Tropical Health Division, Menzies School of Health Research, Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia.Global and Tropical Health Division, Menzies School of Health Research, Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia Department of Infectious Diseases and Northern Territory Medical Program, Royal Darwin Hospital, Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia.Global and Tropical Health Division, Menzies School of Health Research, Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia.Global and Tropical Health Division, Menzies School of Health Research, Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia.Global and Tropical Health Division, Menzies School of Health Research, Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia.Center for Microbial Genetics and Genomics, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, Arizona, USA.Center for Microbial Genetics and Genomics, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, Arizona, USA.Global and Tropical Health Division, Menzies School of Health Research, Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia.Global and Tropical Health Division, Menzies School of Health Research, Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia.Global and Tropical Health Division, Menzies School of Health Research, Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia.Center for Microbial Genetics and Genomics, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, Arizona, USA.Center for Microbial Genetics and Genomics, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, Arizona, USA.Center for Microbial Genetics and Genomics, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, Arizona, USA.Global and Tropical Health Division, Menzies School of Health Research, Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia.Global and Tropical Health Division, Menzies School of Health Research, Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia Department of Infectious Diseases and Northern Territory Medical Program, Royal Darwin Hospital, Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

Language

eng

PubMed ID

26607593

Citation

Price, Erin P., et al. "Unprecedented Melioidosis Cases in Northern Australia Caused By an Asian Burkholderia Pseudomallei Strain Identified By Using Large-Scale Comparative Genomics." Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol. 82, no. 3, 2016, pp. 954-63.
Price EP, Sarovich DS, Smith EJ, et al. Unprecedented Melioidosis Cases in Northern Australia Caused by an Asian Burkholderia pseudomallei Strain Identified by Using Large-Scale Comparative Genomics. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2016;82(3):954-63.
Price, E. P., Sarovich, D. S., Smith, E. J., MacHunter, B., Harrington, G., Theobald, V., Hall, C. M., Hornstra, H. M., McRobb, E., Podin, Y., Mayo, M., Sahl, J. W., Wagner, D. M., Keim, P., Kaestli, M., & Currie, B. J. (2016). Unprecedented Melioidosis Cases in Northern Australia Caused by an Asian Burkholderia pseudomallei Strain Identified by Using Large-Scale Comparative Genomics. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 82(3), 954-63. https://doi.org/10.1128/AEM.03013-15
Price EP, et al. Unprecedented Melioidosis Cases in Northern Australia Caused By an Asian Burkholderia Pseudomallei Strain Identified By Using Large-Scale Comparative Genomics. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2016 02 1;82(3):954-63. PubMed PMID: 26607593.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Unprecedented Melioidosis Cases in Northern Australia Caused by an Asian Burkholderia pseudomallei Strain Identified by Using Large-Scale Comparative Genomics. AU - Price,Erin P, AU - Sarovich,Derek S, AU - Smith,Emma J, AU - MacHunter,Barbara, AU - Harrington,Glenda, AU - Theobald,Vanessa, AU - Hall,Carina M, AU - Hornstra,Heidie M, AU - McRobb,Evan, AU - Podin,Yuwana, AU - Mayo,Mark, AU - Sahl,Jason W, AU - Wagner,David M, AU - Keim,Paul, AU - Kaestli,Mirjam, AU - Currie,Bart J, Y1 - 2015/11/25/ PY - 2015/09/15/received PY - 2015/11/13/accepted PY - 2015/11/27/entrez PY - 2015/11/27/pubmed PY - 2016/11/1/medline SP - 954 EP - 63 JF - Applied and environmental microbiology JO - Appl Environ Microbiol VL - 82 IS - 3 N2 - Melioidosis is a disease of humans and animals that is caused by the saprophytic bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei. Once thought to be confined to certain locations, the known presence of B. pseudomallei is expanding as more regions of endemicity are uncovered. There is no vaccine for melioidosis, and even with antibiotic administration, the mortality rate is as high as 40% in some regions that are endemic for the infection. Despite high levels of recombination, phylogenetic reconstruction of B. pseudomallei populations using whole-genome sequencing (WGS) has revealed surprisingly robust biogeographic separation between isolates from Australia and Asia. To date, there have been no confirmed autochthonous melioidosis cases in Australia caused by an Asian isolate; likewise, no autochthonous cases in Asia have been identified as Australian in origin. Here, we used comparative genomic analysis of 455 B. pseudomallei genomes to confirm the unprecedented presence of an Asian clone, sequence type 562 (ST-562), in Darwin, northern Australia. First observed in Darwin in 2005, the incidence of melioidosis cases attributable to ST-562 infection has steadily risen, and it is now a common strain in Darwin. Intriguingly, the Australian ST-562 appears to be geographically restricted to a single locale and is genetically less diverse than other common STs from this region, indicating a recent introduction of this clone into northern Australia. Detailed genomic and epidemiological investigations of new clinical and environmental B. pseudomallei isolates in the Darwin region and ST-562 isolates from Asia will be critical for understanding the origin, distribution, and dissemination of this emerging clone in northern Australia. SN - 1098-5336 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/26607593/Unprecedented_Melioidosis_Cases_in_Northern_Australia_Caused_by_an_Asian_Burkholderia_pseudomallei_Strain_Identified_by_Using_Large_Scale_Comparative_Genomics_ L2 - http://aem.asm.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=26607593 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -