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Reduced dietary intake of simple sugars alters perceived sweet taste intensity but not perceived pleasantness.
Am J Clin Nutr. 2016 Jan; 103(1):50-60.AJ

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Individuals who adhere to reduced-sodium diets come to prefer less salt over time, but it is unclear whether sweet taste perception is modulated by reduced sugar intake.

OBJECTIVE

The objective was to determine how a substantial reduction in dietary intake of simple sugars affects sweetness intensity and pleasantness of sweet foods and beverages.

DESIGN

Healthy men and women aged 21-54 y participated for 5 mo. After the baseline month, 2 subject groups were matched for demographic characteristics, body mass index, and intake of simple sugars. One group (n = 16; 13 of whom completed key experimental manipulations) was randomly assigned to receive a low-sugar diet during the subsequent 3 mo, with instructions to replace 40% of calories from simple sugars with fats, proteins, and complex carbohydrates. The other (control) group (n = 17; 16 of whom completed the study) did not change their sugar intake. During the final month, both groups chose any diet they wished. Each month subjects rated the sweetness intensity and pleasantness of vanilla puddings and raspberry beverages that varied in sucrose concentration.

RESULTS

ANOVA showed no systematic differences between groups in rated sweetness during the baseline or first diet month. During the second diet month, the low-sugar group rated low-sucrose pudding samples as more intense than did the control group (significant group-by-concentration interaction, P = 0.002). During the third diet month, the low-sugar subjects rated both low and high concentrations in puddings as ∼40% sweeter than did the control group (significant effect of group, P = 0.01). A weaker effect on rated sweetness was obtained for the beverages. Rated pleasantness was not affected for either of the stimuli.

CONCLUSIONS

This experiment provides empirical evidence that changes in consumption of simple sugars influence perceived sweet taste intensity. More work is needed to determine whether sugar intake ultimately shifts preferences for sweet foods and beverages. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02090478.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Monell Chemical Senses Center, Philadelphia, PA; and pwise@monell.org.PepsiCo Global R&D, Long Term Research, Hawthorne, NY.PepsiCo Global R&D, Long Term Research, Hawthorne, NY.Monell Chemical Senses Center, Philadelphia, PA; and.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Randomized Controlled Trial
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

26607941

Citation

Wise, Paul M., et al. "Reduced Dietary Intake of Simple Sugars Alters Perceived Sweet Taste Intensity but Not Perceived Pleasantness." The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 103, no. 1, 2016, pp. 50-60.
Wise PM, Nattress L, Flammer LJ, et al. Reduced dietary intake of simple sugars alters perceived sweet taste intensity but not perceived pleasantness. Am J Clin Nutr. 2016;103(1):50-60.
Wise, P. M., Nattress, L., Flammer, L. J., & Beauchamp, G. K. (2016). Reduced dietary intake of simple sugars alters perceived sweet taste intensity but not perceived pleasantness. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 103(1), 50-60. https://doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.115.112300
Wise PM, et al. Reduced Dietary Intake of Simple Sugars Alters Perceived Sweet Taste Intensity but Not Perceived Pleasantness. Am J Clin Nutr. 2016;103(1):50-60. PubMed PMID: 26607941.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Reduced dietary intake of simple sugars alters perceived sweet taste intensity but not perceived pleasantness. AU - Wise,Paul M, AU - Nattress,Laura, AU - Flammer,Linda J, AU - Beauchamp,Gary K, Y1 - 2015/11/25/ PY - 2015/04/01/received PY - 2015/10/16/accepted PY - 2015/11/27/entrez PY - 2015/11/27/pubmed PY - 2016/5/3/medline KW - human KW - low sugar KW - psychophysics KW - sucrose KW - sugar reduction SP - 50 EP - 60 JF - The American journal of clinical nutrition JO - Am J Clin Nutr VL - 103 IS - 1 N2 - BACKGROUND: Individuals who adhere to reduced-sodium diets come to prefer less salt over time, but it is unclear whether sweet taste perception is modulated by reduced sugar intake. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to determine how a substantial reduction in dietary intake of simple sugars affects sweetness intensity and pleasantness of sweet foods and beverages. DESIGN: Healthy men and women aged 21-54 y participated for 5 mo. After the baseline month, 2 subject groups were matched for demographic characteristics, body mass index, and intake of simple sugars. One group (n = 16; 13 of whom completed key experimental manipulations) was randomly assigned to receive a low-sugar diet during the subsequent 3 mo, with instructions to replace 40% of calories from simple sugars with fats, proteins, and complex carbohydrates. The other (control) group (n = 17; 16 of whom completed the study) did not change their sugar intake. During the final month, both groups chose any diet they wished. Each month subjects rated the sweetness intensity and pleasantness of vanilla puddings and raspberry beverages that varied in sucrose concentration. RESULTS: ANOVA showed no systematic differences between groups in rated sweetness during the baseline or first diet month. During the second diet month, the low-sugar group rated low-sucrose pudding samples as more intense than did the control group (significant group-by-concentration interaction, P = 0.002). During the third diet month, the low-sugar subjects rated both low and high concentrations in puddings as ∼40% sweeter than did the control group (significant effect of group, P = 0.01). A weaker effect on rated sweetness was obtained for the beverages. Rated pleasantness was not affected for either of the stimuli. CONCLUSIONS: This experiment provides empirical evidence that changes in consumption of simple sugars influence perceived sweet taste intensity. More work is needed to determine whether sugar intake ultimately shifts preferences for sweet foods and beverages. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02090478. SN - 1938-3207 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/26607941/Reduced_dietary_intake_of_simple_sugars_alters_perceived_sweet_taste_intensity_but_not_perceived_pleasantness_ L2 - https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article-lookup/doi/10.3945/ajcn.115.112300 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -