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Carriage of Neisseria meningitidis in the Hajj and Umrah mass gatherings.
Int J Infect Dis. 2016 Jun; 47:65-70.IJ

Abstract

Meningococcal disease is a serious public health threat, especially during mass gatherings such as Hajj and Umrah which provide optimal conditions for disease transmission. The disease is caused by Neisseria meningitidis and transmitted mainly via asymptomatic carriers. A review of the literature on asymptomatic N. meningitidis carriage among Hajj and Umrah pilgrims and their household contacts was performed. Carriage studies reported carriage rates to be higher in Hajj pilgrims compared to Umrah pilgrims and that these events promote acquisition of carriage among pilgrims. With some outliers, most studies found carriage rates among pilgrims to be comparable to those in populations under non-epidemic settings. However, these results should be interpreted with caution, taking into account the limitations within the studies identified. A wide variety of N. meningitidis serogroups appear to be circulating among Hajj and Umrah pilgrims, with serogroups W135 and B being most prominent. Current Hajj and Umrah meningococcal disease preventative measures do not necessarily prevent carriage and transmission, which may result in local and international outbreaks among susceptible populations. Monitoring carriage states of visitors and local inhabitants in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, as well as the implementation of preventive measures that impact carriage, are warranted to reduce the risk of Hajj and Umrah-related meningococcal disease outbreaks.

Authors+Show Affiliations

The Global Centre for Mass Gatherings Medicine, Public Health Directorate, Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Electronic address: saber.yezli@gmail.com.Lee Kong Chain School of Medicine, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore.The Global Centre for Mass Gatherings Medicine, Public Health Directorate, Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; Department of Family and Community Medicine, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Pub Type(s)

Historical Article
Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

26612675

Citation

Yezli, Saber, et al. "Carriage of Neisseria Meningitidis in the Hajj and Umrah Mass Gatherings." International Journal of Infectious Diseases : IJID : Official Publication of the International Society for Infectious Diseases, vol. 47, 2016, pp. 65-70.
Yezli S, Wilder-Smith A, Bin Saeed AA. Carriage of Neisseria meningitidis in the Hajj and Umrah mass gatherings. Int J Infect Dis. 2016;47:65-70.
Yezli, S., Wilder-Smith, A., & Bin Saeed, A. A. (2016). Carriage of Neisseria meningitidis in the Hajj and Umrah mass gatherings. International Journal of Infectious Diseases : IJID : Official Publication of the International Society for Infectious Diseases, 47, 65-70. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2015.11.014
Yezli S, Wilder-Smith A, Bin Saeed AA. Carriage of Neisseria Meningitidis in the Hajj and Umrah Mass Gatherings. Int J Infect Dis. 2016;47:65-70. PubMed PMID: 26612675.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Carriage of Neisseria meningitidis in the Hajj and Umrah mass gatherings. AU - Yezli,Saber, AU - Wilder-Smith,Annelies, AU - Bin Saeed,Abdulaziz A, Y1 - 2015/11/21/ PY - 2015/10/28/received PY - 2015/11/06/accepted PY - 2015/11/28/entrez PY - 2015/11/28/pubmed PY - 2017/2/7/medline KW - Carriage KW - Hajj KW - Mass gatherings KW - Meningococcal disease KW - Neisseria meningitidis KW - Umrah SP - 65 EP - 70 JF - International journal of infectious diseases : IJID : official publication of the International Society for Infectious Diseases JO - Int J Infect Dis VL - 47 N2 - Meningococcal disease is a serious public health threat, especially during mass gatherings such as Hajj and Umrah which provide optimal conditions for disease transmission. The disease is caused by Neisseria meningitidis and transmitted mainly via asymptomatic carriers. A review of the literature on asymptomatic N. meningitidis carriage among Hajj and Umrah pilgrims and their household contacts was performed. Carriage studies reported carriage rates to be higher in Hajj pilgrims compared to Umrah pilgrims and that these events promote acquisition of carriage among pilgrims. With some outliers, most studies found carriage rates among pilgrims to be comparable to those in populations under non-epidemic settings. However, these results should be interpreted with caution, taking into account the limitations within the studies identified. A wide variety of N. meningitidis serogroups appear to be circulating among Hajj and Umrah pilgrims, with serogroups W135 and B being most prominent. Current Hajj and Umrah meningococcal disease preventative measures do not necessarily prevent carriage and transmission, which may result in local and international outbreaks among susceptible populations. Monitoring carriage states of visitors and local inhabitants in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, as well as the implementation of preventive measures that impact carriage, are warranted to reduce the risk of Hajj and Umrah-related meningococcal disease outbreaks. SN - 1878-3511 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/26612675/Carriage_of_Neisseria_meningitidis_in_the_Hajj_and_Umrah_mass_gatherings_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1201-9712(15)00275-1 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -