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The prevalence of anemia and iron deficiency is more common in breastfed infants than their mothers in Bhaktapur, Nepal.
Eur J Clin Nutr. 2016 Apr; 70(4):456-62.EJ

Abstract

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES

Iron deficiency anemia is a widespread public health problem, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. Maternal iron status around and during pregnancy may influence infant iron status. We examined multiple biomarkers to determine the prevalence of iron deficiency and anemia among breastfed infants and explored its relationship with maternal and infant characteristics in Bhaktapur, Nepal.

SUBJECTS/METHODS

In a cross-sectional survey, we randomly selected 500 mother-infant pairs from Bhaktapur municipality. Blood was analyzed for hemoglobin, ferritin, total iron-binding capacity, transferrin receptors and C-reactive protein.

RESULTS

The altitude-adjusted prevalence of anemia was 49% among infants 2-6-month-old (hemaglobin (Hb) <10.8 g/dl) and 72% among infants 7-12-month-old (Hb <11.3 g/dl). Iron deficiency anemia, defined as anemia and serum ferritin <20 or <12 μg/l, affected 9 and 26% of infants of these same age groups. Twenty percent of mothers had anemia (Hb <12.3 g/dl), but only one-fifth was explained by depletion of iron stores. Significant predictors of infant iron status and anemia were infant age, sex and duration of exclusive breastfeeding and maternal ferritin concentrations.

CONCLUSIONS

Our findings suggest that iron supplementation in pregnancy is likely to have resulted in a low prevalence of postpartum anemia. The higher prevalence of anemia and iron deficiency among breastfed infants compared with their mothers suggests calls for intervention targeting newborns and infants.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Centre for International Health, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway. Department of Community Medicine, Kathmandu Medical College, Sinamangal, Kathmandu, Nepal.Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Science, Oslo, Norway.Department of Child Health, Institute of Medicine, Kathmandu, Nepal.WorldFish, Malaysia, Bayan Lepas, Malaysia. Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA.Department of Clinical Science, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway. Laboratory of Clinical Biochemistry, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway.Department of Child Health, Institute of Medicine, Kathmandu, Nepal.Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA.Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA. Department of Epidemiology and Global Health and Population, Harvard School of Public Health.Centre for International Health, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway. Innlandet Hospital Trust, Lillehammer, Norway.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

26626049

Citation

Chandyo, R K., et al. "The Prevalence of Anemia and Iron Deficiency Is More Common in Breastfed Infants Than Their Mothers in Bhaktapur, Nepal." European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 70, no. 4, 2016, pp. 456-62.
Chandyo RK, Henjum S, Ulak M, et al. The prevalence of anemia and iron deficiency is more common in breastfed infants than their mothers in Bhaktapur, Nepal. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2016;70(4):456-62.
Chandyo, R. K., Henjum, S., Ulak, M., Thorne-Lyman, A. L., Ulvik, R. J., Shrestha, P. S., Locks, L., Fawzi, W., & Strand, T. A. (2016). The prevalence of anemia and iron deficiency is more common in breastfed infants than their mothers in Bhaktapur, Nepal. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 70(4), 456-62. https://doi.org/10.1038/ejcn.2015.199
Chandyo RK, et al. The Prevalence of Anemia and Iron Deficiency Is More Common in Breastfed Infants Than Their Mothers in Bhaktapur, Nepal. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2016;70(4):456-62. PubMed PMID: 26626049.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - The prevalence of anemia and iron deficiency is more common in breastfed infants than their mothers in Bhaktapur, Nepal. AU - Chandyo,R K, AU - Henjum,S, AU - Ulak,M, AU - Thorne-Lyman,A L, AU - Ulvik,R J, AU - Shrestha,P S, AU - Locks,L, AU - Fawzi,W, AU - Strand,T A, Y1 - 2015/12/02/ PY - 2014/10/28/received PY - 2015/09/17/revised PY - 2015/09/21/accepted PY - 2015/12/3/entrez PY - 2015/12/3/pubmed PY - 2017/2/12/medline SP - 456 EP - 62 JF - European journal of clinical nutrition JO - Eur J Clin Nutr VL - 70 IS - 4 N2 - BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Iron deficiency anemia is a widespread public health problem, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. Maternal iron status around and during pregnancy may influence infant iron status. We examined multiple biomarkers to determine the prevalence of iron deficiency and anemia among breastfed infants and explored its relationship with maternal and infant characteristics in Bhaktapur, Nepal. SUBJECTS/METHODS: In a cross-sectional survey, we randomly selected 500 mother-infant pairs from Bhaktapur municipality. Blood was analyzed for hemoglobin, ferritin, total iron-binding capacity, transferrin receptors and C-reactive protein. RESULTS: The altitude-adjusted prevalence of anemia was 49% among infants 2-6-month-old (hemaglobin (Hb) <10.8 g/dl) and 72% among infants 7-12-month-old (Hb <11.3 g/dl). Iron deficiency anemia, defined as anemia and serum ferritin <20 or <12 μg/l, affected 9 and 26% of infants of these same age groups. Twenty percent of mothers had anemia (Hb <12.3 g/dl), but only one-fifth was explained by depletion of iron stores. Significant predictors of infant iron status and anemia were infant age, sex and duration of exclusive breastfeeding and maternal ferritin concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that iron supplementation in pregnancy is likely to have resulted in a low prevalence of postpartum anemia. The higher prevalence of anemia and iron deficiency among breastfed infants compared with their mothers suggests calls for intervention targeting newborns and infants. SN - 1476-5640 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/26626049/The_prevalence_of_anemia_and_iron_deficiency_is_more_common_in_breastfed_infants_than_their_mothers_in_Bhaktapur_Nepal_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1038/ejcn.2015.199 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -