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Fruit and Vegetable Consumption and the Incidence of Hypertension in Three Prospective Cohort Studies.
Hypertension 2016; 67(2):288-93H

Abstract

Increased fruit and vegetable intake lowers blood pressure in short-term interventional studies. However, data on the association of long-term intake of fruits and vegetables with hypertension risk are scarce. We prospectively examined the independent association of whole fruit (excluding juices) and vegetable intake, as well as the change in consumption of whole fruits and vegetables, with incident hypertension in 3 large longitudinal cohort studies: Nurses' Health Study (n=62 175), Nurses' Health Study II (n=88 475), and Health Professionals Follow-up Study (n=36 803). We calculated hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for fruit and vegetable consumption while controlling for hypertension risk factors. Compared with participants whose consumption was ≤4 servings/week, the pooled hazard ratios among those whose intake was ≥4 servings/day were 0.92(0.87-0.97) for total whole fruit intake and 0.95(0.86-1.04) for total vegetable intake. Similarly, compared with participants who did not increase their fruit or vegetable consumption, the pooled hazard ratios for those whose intake increased by ≥7 servings/week were 0.94(0.90-0.97) for total whole fruit intake and 0.98(0.94-1.01) for total vegetable. Analyses of individual fruits and vegetables yielded different results. Consumption levels of ≥4 servings/week (as opposed to <1 serving/month) of broccoli, carrots, tofu or soybeans, raisins, and apples was associated with lower hypertension risk. In conclusion, our results suggest that greater long-term intake and increased consumption of whole fruits may reduce the risk of developing hypertension.

Authors+Show Affiliations

From the Renal Division, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA (L.B., J.P.F.); Channing Division of Network Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (W.C.W., E.B.R., J.P.F.); Department of Nutrition, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA (I.M., A.S., W.C.W., E.B.R.); and Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA (W.C.W., E.B.R). lborgi@partners.org.From the Renal Division, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA (L.B., J.P.F.); Channing Division of Network Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (W.C.W., E.B.R., J.P.F.); Department of Nutrition, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA (I.M., A.S., W.C.W., E.B.R.); and Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA (W.C.W., E.B.R).From the Renal Division, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA (L.B., J.P.F.); Channing Division of Network Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (W.C.W., E.B.R., J.P.F.); Department of Nutrition, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA (I.M., A.S., W.C.W., E.B.R.); and Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA (W.C.W., E.B.R).From the Renal Division, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA (L.B., J.P.F.); Channing Division of Network Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (W.C.W., E.B.R., J.P.F.); Department of Nutrition, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA (I.M., A.S., W.C.W., E.B.R.); and Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA (W.C.W., E.B.R).From the Renal Division, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA (L.B., J.P.F.); Channing Division of Network Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (W.C.W., E.B.R., J.P.F.); Department of Nutrition, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA (I.M., A.S., W.C.W., E.B.R.); and Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA (W.C.W., E.B.R).From the Renal Division, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA (L.B., J.P.F.); Channing Division of Network Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (W.C.W., E.B.R., J.P.F.); Department of Nutrition, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA (I.M., A.S., W.C.W., E.B.R.); and Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA (W.C.W., E.B.R).

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Multicenter Study
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

26644239

Citation

Borgi, Lea, et al. "Fruit and Vegetable Consumption and the Incidence of Hypertension in Three Prospective Cohort Studies." Hypertension (Dallas, Tex. : 1979), vol. 67, no. 2, 2016, pp. 288-93.
Borgi L, Muraki I, Satija A, et al. Fruit and Vegetable Consumption and the Incidence of Hypertension in Three Prospective Cohort Studies. Hypertension. 2016;67(2):288-93.
Borgi, L., Muraki, I., Satija, A., Willett, W. C., Rimm, E. B., & Forman, J. P. (2016). Fruit and Vegetable Consumption and the Incidence of Hypertension in Three Prospective Cohort Studies. Hypertension (Dallas, Tex. : 1979), 67(2), pp. 288-93. doi:10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.115.06497.
Borgi L, et al. Fruit and Vegetable Consumption and the Incidence of Hypertension in Three Prospective Cohort Studies. Hypertension. 2016;67(2):288-93. PubMed PMID: 26644239.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Fruit and Vegetable Consumption and the Incidence of Hypertension in Three Prospective Cohort Studies. AU - Borgi,Lea, AU - Muraki,Isao, AU - Satija,Ambika, AU - Willett,Walter C, AU - Rimm,Eric B, AU - Forman,John P, Y1 - 2015/12/07/ PY - 2015/09/14/received PY - 2015/11/05/accepted PY - 2015/12/9/entrez PY - 2015/12/9/pubmed PY - 2016/5/18/medline KW - epidemiology KW - fruit KW - hypertension KW - incidence KW - prospective studies KW - vegetables SP - 288 EP - 93 JF - Hypertension (Dallas, Tex. : 1979) JO - Hypertension VL - 67 IS - 2 N2 - Increased fruit and vegetable intake lowers blood pressure in short-term interventional studies. However, data on the association of long-term intake of fruits and vegetables with hypertension risk are scarce. We prospectively examined the independent association of whole fruit (excluding juices) and vegetable intake, as well as the change in consumption of whole fruits and vegetables, with incident hypertension in 3 large longitudinal cohort studies: Nurses' Health Study (n=62 175), Nurses' Health Study II (n=88 475), and Health Professionals Follow-up Study (n=36 803). We calculated hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for fruit and vegetable consumption while controlling for hypertension risk factors. Compared with participants whose consumption was ≤4 servings/week, the pooled hazard ratios among those whose intake was ≥4 servings/day were 0.92(0.87-0.97) for total whole fruit intake and 0.95(0.86-1.04) for total vegetable intake. Similarly, compared with participants who did not increase their fruit or vegetable consumption, the pooled hazard ratios for those whose intake increased by ≥7 servings/week were 0.94(0.90-0.97) for total whole fruit intake and 0.98(0.94-1.01) for total vegetable. Analyses of individual fruits and vegetables yielded different results. Consumption levels of ≥4 servings/week (as opposed to <1 serving/month) of broccoli, carrots, tofu or soybeans, raisins, and apples was associated with lower hypertension risk. In conclusion, our results suggest that greater long-term intake and increased consumption of whole fruits may reduce the risk of developing hypertension. SN - 1524-4563 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/26644239/Fruit_and_Vegetable_Consumption_and_the_Incidence_of_Hypertension_in_Three_Prospective_Cohort_Studies_ L2 - http://www.ahajournals.org/doi/full/10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.115.06497?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&amp;rfr_id=ori:rid:crossref.org&amp;rfr_dat=cr_pub=pubmed DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -