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Effects of a Supervised versus an Unsupervised Combined Balance and Strength Training Program on Balance and Muscle Power in Healthy Older Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial.
Gerontology. 2016; 62(3):275-88.G

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Losses in lower extremity muscle strength/power, muscle mass and deficits in static and particularly dynamic balance due to aging are associated with impaired functional performance and an increased fall risk. It has been shown that the combination of balance and strength training (BST) mitigates these age-related deficits. However, it is unresolved whether supervised versus unsupervised BST is equally effective in improving muscle power and balance in older adults.

OBJECTIVE

This study examined the impact of a 12-week BST program followed by 12 weeks of detraining on measures of balance and muscle power in healthy older adults enrolled in supervised (SUP) or unsupervised (UNSUP) training.

METHODS

Sixty-six older adults (men: 25, women: 41; age 73 ± 4 years) were randomly assigned to a SUP group (2/week supervised training, 1/week unsupervised training; n = 22), an UNSUP group (3/week unsupervised training; n = 22) or a passive control group (CON; n = 22). Static (i.e., Romberg Test) and dynamic (i.e., 10-meter walk test) steady-state, proactive (i.e., Timed Up and Go Test, Functional Reach Test), and reactive balance (e.g., Push and Release Test), as well as lower extremity muscle power (i.e., Chair Stand Test; Stair Ascent and Descent Test) were tested before and after the active training phase as well as after detraining.

RESULTS

Adherence rates to training were 92% for SUP and 97% for UNSUP. BST resulted in significant group × time interactions. Post hoc analyses showed, among others, significant training-related improvements for the Romberg Test, stride velocity, Timed Up and Go Test, and Chair Stand Test in favor of the SUP group. Following detraining, significantly enhanced performances (compared to baseline) were still present in 13 variables for the SUP group and in 10 variables for the UNSUP group.

CONCLUSION

Twelve weeks of BST proved to be safe (no training-related injuries) and feasible (high attendance rates of >90%). Deficits of balance and lower extremity muscle power can be mitigated by BST in healthy older adults. Additionally, supervised as compared to unsupervised BST was more effective. Thus, it is recommended to counteract intrinsic fall risk factors by applying supervised BST programs for older adults.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Division of Training and Movement Sciences, University of Potsdam, Potsdam, Germany.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Comparative Study
Journal Article
Randomized Controlled Trial
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

26645282

Citation

Lacroix, André, et al. "Effects of a Supervised Versus an Unsupervised Combined Balance and Strength Training Program On Balance and Muscle Power in Healthy Older Adults: a Randomized Controlled Trial." Gerontology, vol. 62, no. 3, 2016, pp. 275-88.
Lacroix A, Kressig RW, Muehlbauer T, et al. Effects of a Supervised versus an Unsupervised Combined Balance and Strength Training Program on Balance and Muscle Power in Healthy Older Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Gerontology. 2016;62(3):275-88.
Lacroix, A., Kressig, R. W., Muehlbauer, T., Gschwind, Y. J., Pfenninger, B., Bruegger, O., & Granacher, U. (2016). Effects of a Supervised versus an Unsupervised Combined Balance and Strength Training Program on Balance and Muscle Power in Healthy Older Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Gerontology, 62(3), 275-88. https://doi.org/10.1159/000442087
Lacroix A, et al. Effects of a Supervised Versus an Unsupervised Combined Balance and Strength Training Program On Balance and Muscle Power in Healthy Older Adults: a Randomized Controlled Trial. Gerontology. 2016;62(3):275-88. PubMed PMID: 26645282.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Effects of a Supervised versus an Unsupervised Combined Balance and Strength Training Program on Balance and Muscle Power in Healthy Older Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial. AU - Lacroix,André, AU - Kressig,Reto W, AU - Muehlbauer,Thomas, AU - Gschwind,Yves J, AU - Pfenninger,Barbara, AU - Bruegger,Othmar, AU - Granacher,Urs, Y1 - 2015/12/09/ PY - 2015/06/12/received PY - 2015/11/02/accepted PY - 2015/12/10/entrez PY - 2015/12/10/pubmed PY - 2017/1/12/medline SP - 275 EP - 88 JF - Gerontology JO - Gerontology VL - 62 IS - 3 N2 - BACKGROUND: Losses in lower extremity muscle strength/power, muscle mass and deficits in static and particularly dynamic balance due to aging are associated with impaired functional performance and an increased fall risk. It has been shown that the combination of balance and strength training (BST) mitigates these age-related deficits. However, it is unresolved whether supervised versus unsupervised BST is equally effective in improving muscle power and balance in older adults. OBJECTIVE: This study examined the impact of a 12-week BST program followed by 12 weeks of detraining on measures of balance and muscle power in healthy older adults enrolled in supervised (SUP) or unsupervised (UNSUP) training. METHODS: Sixty-six older adults (men: 25, women: 41; age 73 ± 4 years) were randomly assigned to a SUP group (2/week supervised training, 1/week unsupervised training; n = 22), an UNSUP group (3/week unsupervised training; n = 22) or a passive control group (CON; n = 22). Static (i.e., Romberg Test) and dynamic (i.e., 10-meter walk test) steady-state, proactive (i.e., Timed Up and Go Test, Functional Reach Test), and reactive balance (e.g., Push and Release Test), as well as lower extremity muscle power (i.e., Chair Stand Test; Stair Ascent and Descent Test) were tested before and after the active training phase as well as after detraining. RESULTS: Adherence rates to training were 92% for SUP and 97% for UNSUP. BST resulted in significant group × time interactions. Post hoc analyses showed, among others, significant training-related improvements for the Romberg Test, stride velocity, Timed Up and Go Test, and Chair Stand Test in favor of the SUP group. Following detraining, significantly enhanced performances (compared to baseline) were still present in 13 variables for the SUP group and in 10 variables for the UNSUP group. CONCLUSION: Twelve weeks of BST proved to be safe (no training-related injuries) and feasible (high attendance rates of >90%). Deficits of balance and lower extremity muscle power can be mitigated by BST in healthy older adults. Additionally, supervised as compared to unsupervised BST was more effective. Thus, it is recommended to counteract intrinsic fall risk factors by applying supervised BST programs for older adults. SN - 1423-0003 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/26645282/Effects_of_a_Supervised_versus_an_Unsupervised_Combined_Balance_and_Strength_Training_Program_on_Balance_and_Muscle_Power_in_Healthy_Older_Adults:_A_Randomized_Controlled_Trial_ L2 - https://www.karger.com?DOI=10.1159/000442087 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -