MECHANISMS IN ENDOCRINOLOGY: Metabolic and inflammatory pathways on the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes.Eur J Endocrinol. 2016 May; 174(5):R175-87.EJ
Obesity is the main risk factor for type 2 diabetes (T2D). Studies performed over the last 20 years have identified inflammation as the most important link between these two diseases. During the development of obesity, there is activation of subclinical inflammatory activity in tissues involved in metabolism and energy homeostasis. Intracellular serine/threonine kinases activated in response to inflammatory factors can catalyse the inhibitory phosphorylation of key proteins of the insulin-signalling pathway, leading to insulin resistance. Moreover, during the progression of obesity and insulin resistance, the pancreatic islets are also affected by inflammation, contributing to β-cell failure and leading to the onset of T2D. In this review, we will present the main mechanisms involved in the activation of obesity-associated metabolic inflammation and discuss potential therapeutic opportunities that can be developed to treat obesity-associated metabolic diseases.