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Coffee and caffeine consumption and the risk of hypertension in postmenopausal women.
Am J Clin Nutr 2016; 103(1):210-7AJ

Abstract

BACKGROUND

The associations of coffee and caffeine intakes with the risk of incident hypertension remain controversial.

OBJECTIVE

We sought to assess longitudinal relations of caffeinated coffee, decaffeinated coffee, and total caffeine intakes with mean blood pressure and incident hypertension in postmenopausal women in the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study.

DESIGN

In a large prospective study, type and amount of coffee and total caffeine intakes were assessed by using self-reported questionnaires. Hypertension status was ascertained by using measured blood pressure and self-reported drug-treated hypertension. The mean intakes of caffeinated coffee, decaffeinated coffee, and caffeine were 2-3 cups/d, 1 cup/d, and 196 mg/d, respectively. Using multivariable linear regression, we examined the associations of baseline intakes of caffeinated coffee, decaffeinated coffee, and caffeine with measured systolic and diastolic blood pressures at annual visit 3 in 29,985 postmenopausal women who were not hypertensive at baseline. We used Cox proportional hazards models to estimate HRs and their 95% CIs for time to incident hypertension.

RESULTS

During 112,935 person-years of follow-up, 5566 cases of incident hypertension were reported. Neither caffeinated coffee nor caffeine intake was associated with mean systolic or diastolic blood pressure, but decaffeinated coffee intake was associated with a small but clinically irrelevant decrease in mean diastolic blood pressure. Decaffeinated coffee intake was not associated with mean systolic blood pressure. Intakes of caffeinated coffee, decaffeinated coffee, and caffeine were not associated with the risk of incident hypertension (P-trend > 0.05 for all).

CONCLUSION

In summary, these findings suggest that caffeinated coffee, decaffeinated coffee, and caffeine are not risk factors for hypertension in postmenopausal women.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Divisions of Nephrology and rheej@stanford.edu.Biomedical Informatics Research, Department of Medicine and.Biomedical Informatics Research, Department of Medicine and.Divisions of Nephrology and.RAND Corporation, Santa Monica, CA;Faculty of Health Sciences and Social Welfare, University of Haifa, Haifa, Israel;Division of Preventive Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA; and.Stanford Prevention Research Center, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, CA;Selzman Institute for Kidney Health, Section of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX.

Pub Type(s)

Clinical Study
Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

Language

eng

PubMed ID

26657046

Citation

Rhee, Jinnie J., et al. "Coffee and Caffeine Consumption and the Risk of Hypertension in Postmenopausal Women." The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 103, no. 1, 2016, pp. 210-7.
Rhee JJ, Qin F, Hedlin HK, et al. Coffee and caffeine consumption and the risk of hypertension in postmenopausal women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2016;103(1):210-7.
Rhee, J. J., Qin, F., Hedlin, H. K., Chang, T. I., Bird, C. E., Zaslavsky, O., ... Winkelmayer, W. C. (2016). Coffee and caffeine consumption and the risk of hypertension in postmenopausal women. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 103(1), pp. 210-7. doi:10.3945/ajcn.115.120147.
Rhee JJ, et al. Coffee and Caffeine Consumption and the Risk of Hypertension in Postmenopausal Women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2016;103(1):210-7. PubMed PMID: 26657046.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Coffee and caffeine consumption and the risk of hypertension in postmenopausal women. AU - Rhee,Jinnie J, AU - Qin,FeiFei, AU - Hedlin,Haley K, AU - Chang,Tara I, AU - Bird,Chloe E, AU - Zaslavsky,Oleg, AU - Manson,JoAnn E, AU - Stefanick,Marcia L, AU - Winkelmayer,Wolfgang C, Y1 - 2015/12/09/ PY - 2015/07/29/received PY - 2015/10/13/accepted PY - 2015/12/15/entrez PY - 2015/12/15/pubmed PY - 2016/5/3/medline KW - blood pressure KW - caffeinated coffee KW - caffeine KW - decaffeinated coffee KW - hypertension SP - 210 EP - 7 JF - The American journal of clinical nutrition JO - Am. J. Clin. Nutr. VL - 103 IS - 1 N2 - BACKGROUND: The associations of coffee and caffeine intakes with the risk of incident hypertension remain controversial. OBJECTIVE: We sought to assess longitudinal relations of caffeinated coffee, decaffeinated coffee, and total caffeine intakes with mean blood pressure and incident hypertension in postmenopausal women in the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study. DESIGN: In a large prospective study, type and amount of coffee and total caffeine intakes were assessed by using self-reported questionnaires. Hypertension status was ascertained by using measured blood pressure and self-reported drug-treated hypertension. The mean intakes of caffeinated coffee, decaffeinated coffee, and caffeine were 2-3 cups/d, 1 cup/d, and 196 mg/d, respectively. Using multivariable linear regression, we examined the associations of baseline intakes of caffeinated coffee, decaffeinated coffee, and caffeine with measured systolic and diastolic blood pressures at annual visit 3 in 29,985 postmenopausal women who were not hypertensive at baseline. We used Cox proportional hazards models to estimate HRs and their 95% CIs for time to incident hypertension. RESULTS: During 112,935 person-years of follow-up, 5566 cases of incident hypertension were reported. Neither caffeinated coffee nor caffeine intake was associated with mean systolic or diastolic blood pressure, but decaffeinated coffee intake was associated with a small but clinically irrelevant decrease in mean diastolic blood pressure. Decaffeinated coffee intake was not associated with mean systolic blood pressure. Intakes of caffeinated coffee, decaffeinated coffee, and caffeine were not associated with the risk of incident hypertension (P-trend > 0.05 for all). CONCLUSION: In summary, these findings suggest that caffeinated coffee, decaffeinated coffee, and caffeine are not risk factors for hypertension in postmenopausal women. SN - 1938-3207 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/26657046/Coffee_and_caffeine_consumption_and_the_risk_of_hypertension_in_postmenopausal_women_ L2 - https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article-lookup/doi/10.3945/ajcn.115.120147 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -