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Biochemical and genetic toxicity of the ionic liquid 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride on earthworms (Eisenia fetida).
Environ Toxicol Chem. 2016 Feb; 35(2):411-8.ET

Abstract

Ionic liquids also known as "green solvents," are used in many fields. However, the dispersion of ionic liquids in soil systems is likely to cause damage to soil organisms. The objective of the present study was to investigate the toxicity of 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([C8 mim]Cl) on earthworms (Eisenia fetida). For this purpose, earthworms were exposed to different concentrations of [C8 mim]Cl (0 mg/kg, 5 mg/kg, 10 mg/kg, 20 mg/kg, and 40 mg/kg artificial soil) and sampled at 7 d, 14 d, 21 d, and 28 d. The results indicated that [C8 mim]Cl could cause an accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in earthworms, even at the lowest concentration (5 mg/kg). Compared with the controls, during the [C8 mim]Cl exposure period, the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) decreased and then increased, whereas the activities of peroxidase (POD) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) increased. These changes in the activities of antioxidant enzymes and GST indicated that [C8 mim]Cl could induce oxidative damage in earthworms. The malondialdehyde content was increased by high levels of [C8 mim]Cl at 14 d and 28 d, indicating that [C8 mim]Cl could lead to lipid peroxidation in earthworms. In addition, the degree of DNA damage significantly increased with increasing [C8 mim]Cl concentrations and exposure time. The present study shows that [C8 mim]Cl caused biochemical and genetic toxicity in earthworms.

Authors+Show Affiliations

College of Resources and Environment, Key Laboratory of Agricultural Environment in Universities of Shandong, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai'an, People's Republic of China.College of Resources and Environment, Key Laboratory of Agricultural Environment in Universities of Shandong, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai'an, People's Republic of China.College of Resources and Environment, Key Laboratory of Agricultural Environment in Universities of Shandong, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai'an, People's Republic of China.College of Resources and Environment, Key Laboratory of Agricultural Environment in Universities of Shandong, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai'an, People's Republic of China.College of Resources and Environment, Key Laboratory of Agricultural Environment in Universities of Shandong, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai'an, People's Republic of China.College of Resources and Environment, Key Laboratory of Agricultural Environment in Universities of Shandong, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai'an, People's Republic of China.College of Resources and Environment, Key Laboratory of Agricultural Environment in Universities of Shandong, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai'an, People's Republic of China.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

26671879

Citation

Guo, Yingying, et al. "Biochemical and Genetic Toxicity of the Ionic Liquid 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium Chloride On Earthworms (Eisenia Fetida)." Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, vol. 35, no. 2, 2016, pp. 411-8.
Guo Y, Liu T, Zhang J, et al. Biochemical and genetic toxicity of the ionic liquid 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride on earthworms (Eisenia fetida). Environ Toxicol Chem. 2016;35(2):411-8.
Guo, Y., Liu, T., Zhang, J., Wang, J., Wang, J., Zhu, L., & Yang, J. (2016). Biochemical and genetic toxicity of the ionic liquid 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride on earthworms (Eisenia fetida). Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 35(2), 411-8. https://doi.org/10.1002/etc.3198
Guo Y, et al. Biochemical and Genetic Toxicity of the Ionic Liquid 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium Chloride On Earthworms (Eisenia Fetida). Environ Toxicol Chem. 2016;35(2):411-8. PubMed PMID: 26671879.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Biochemical and genetic toxicity of the ionic liquid 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride on earthworms (Eisenia fetida). AU - Guo,Yingying, AU - Liu,Tong, AU - Zhang,Jun, AU - Wang,Jinhua, AU - Wang,Jun, AU - Zhu,Lusheng, AU - Yang,Jinhui, Y1 - 2015/12/15/ PY - 2015/02/05/received PY - 2015/06/22/revised PY - 2015/08/05/accepted PY - 2015/12/17/entrez PY - 2015/12/17/pubmed PY - 2016/9/27/medline KW - Antioxidant enzymes KW - DNA damage KW - Glutathione S-transferase KW - Lipid peroxidation KW - Reactive oxygen species SP - 411 EP - 8 JF - Environmental toxicology and chemistry JO - Environ Toxicol Chem VL - 35 IS - 2 N2 - Ionic liquids also known as "green solvents," are used in many fields. However, the dispersion of ionic liquids in soil systems is likely to cause damage to soil organisms. The objective of the present study was to investigate the toxicity of 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([C8 mim]Cl) on earthworms (Eisenia fetida). For this purpose, earthworms were exposed to different concentrations of [C8 mim]Cl (0 mg/kg, 5 mg/kg, 10 mg/kg, 20 mg/kg, and 40 mg/kg artificial soil) and sampled at 7 d, 14 d, 21 d, and 28 d. The results indicated that [C8 mim]Cl could cause an accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in earthworms, even at the lowest concentration (5 mg/kg). Compared with the controls, during the [C8 mim]Cl exposure period, the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) decreased and then increased, whereas the activities of peroxidase (POD) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) increased. These changes in the activities of antioxidant enzymes and GST indicated that [C8 mim]Cl could induce oxidative damage in earthworms. The malondialdehyde content was increased by high levels of [C8 mim]Cl at 14 d and 28 d, indicating that [C8 mim]Cl could lead to lipid peroxidation in earthworms. In addition, the degree of DNA damage significantly increased with increasing [C8 mim]Cl concentrations and exposure time. The present study shows that [C8 mim]Cl caused biochemical and genetic toxicity in earthworms. SN - 1552-8618 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/26671879/Biochemical_and_genetic_toxicity_of_the_ionic_liquid_1_octyl_3_methylimidazolium_chloride_on_earthworms__Eisenia_fetida__ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1002/etc.3198 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -