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Improving Cycling Performance: Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Increases Time to Exhaustion in Cycling.
PLoS One 2015; 10(12):e0144916Plos

Abstract

The central nervous system seems to have an important role in fatigue and exercise tolerance. Novel noninvasive techniques of neuromodulation can provide insights on the relationship between brain function and exercise performance. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on physical performance and physiological and perceptual variables with regard to fatigue and exercise tolerance. Eleven physically active subjects participated in an incremental test on a cycle simulator to define peak power output. During 3 visits, the subjects experienced 3 stimulation conditions (anodal, cathodal, or sham tDCS-with an interval of at least 48 h between conditions) in a randomized, counterbalanced order to measure the effects of tDCS on time to exhaustion at 80% of peak power. Stimulation was administered before each test over 13 min at a current intensity of 2.0 mA. In each session, the Brunel Mood State questionnaire was given twice: after stimulation and after the time-to-exhaustion test. Further, during the tests, the electromyographic activity of the vastus lateralis and rectus femoris muscles, perceived exertion, and heart rate were recorded. RM-ANOVA showed that the subjects performed better during anodal primary motor cortex stimulation (491 ± 100 s) compared with cathodal stimulation (443 ± 11 s) and sham (407 ± 69 s). No significant difference was observed between the cathodal and sham conditions. The effect sizes confirmed the greater effect of anodal M1 tDCS (anodal x cathodal = 0.47; anodal x sham = 0.77; and cathodal x sham = 0.29). Magnitude-based inference suggested the anodal condition to be positive versus the cathodal and sham conditions. There were no differences among the three stimulation conditions in RPE (p = 0.07) or heart rate (p = 0.73). However, as hypothesized, RM- ANOVA revealed a main effect of time for the two variables (RPE and HR: p < 0.001). EMG activity also did not differ during the test accross the different conditions. We conclude that anodal tDCS increases exercise tolerance in a cycling-based, constant-load exercise test, performed at 80% of peak power. Performance was enhanced in the absence of changes in physiological and perceptual variables.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Universidade Estadual de Londrina. Group of Study and Research in Neuromuscular System and Exercise. Londrina, PR, Brazil. Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa. Study Group of Physiological Responses and Adaptations to Exercise. Ponta Grossa, PR, Brazil.Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa. Study Group of Physiological Responses and Adaptations to Exercise. Ponta Grossa, PR, Brazil.Universidade Estadual de Londrina. Group of Study and Research in Neuromuscular System and Exercise. Londrina, PR, Brazil. Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa. Study Group of Physiological Responses and Adaptations to Exercise. Ponta Grossa, PR, Brazil.Behavioral Imaging and Neural Dynamics Center, Department of Medicine and Aging Sciences, University G. d'Annunzio, Chieti, Italy.Cognitive Neuroscience Laboratory and Developmental Disorders Program, Center for Health and Biological Sciences, Mackenzie Presbyterian University, Sao Paulo, Brazil.Spaulding Neuromodulation Center, Spaulding Rehabilitation Hospital and Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America.Universidade Estadual de Londrina. Group of Study and Research in Neuromuscular System and Exercise. Londrina, PR, Brazil.

Pub Type(s)

Clinical Trial
Journal Article
Randomized Controlled Trial
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

26674200

Citation

Vitor-Costa, Marcelo, et al. "Improving Cycling Performance: Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Increases Time to Exhaustion in Cycling." PloS One, vol. 10, no. 12, 2015, pp. e0144916.
Vitor-Costa M, Okuno NM, Bortolotti H, et al. Improving Cycling Performance: Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Increases Time to Exhaustion in Cycling. PLoS ONE. 2015;10(12):e0144916.
Vitor-Costa, M., Okuno, N. M., Bortolotti, H., Bertollo, M., Boggio, P. S., Fregni, F., & Altimari, L. R. (2015). Improving Cycling Performance: Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Increases Time to Exhaustion in Cycling. PloS One, 10(12), pp. e0144916. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0144916.
Vitor-Costa M, et al. Improving Cycling Performance: Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Increases Time to Exhaustion in Cycling. PLoS ONE. 2015;10(12):e0144916. PubMed PMID: 26674200.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Improving Cycling Performance: Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Increases Time to Exhaustion in Cycling. AU - Vitor-Costa,Marcelo, AU - Okuno,Nilo Massaru, AU - Bortolotti,Henrique, AU - Bertollo,Maurizio, AU - Boggio,Paulo Sergio, AU - Fregni,Felipe, AU - Altimari,Leandro Ricardo, Y1 - 2015/12/16/ PY - 2015/04/13/received PY - 2015/11/25/accepted PY - 2015/12/18/entrez PY - 2015/12/18/pubmed PY - 2016/7/5/medline SP - e0144916 EP - e0144916 JF - PloS one JO - PLoS ONE VL - 10 IS - 12 N2 - The central nervous system seems to have an important role in fatigue and exercise tolerance. Novel noninvasive techniques of neuromodulation can provide insights on the relationship between brain function and exercise performance. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on physical performance and physiological and perceptual variables with regard to fatigue and exercise tolerance. Eleven physically active subjects participated in an incremental test on a cycle simulator to define peak power output. During 3 visits, the subjects experienced 3 stimulation conditions (anodal, cathodal, or sham tDCS-with an interval of at least 48 h between conditions) in a randomized, counterbalanced order to measure the effects of tDCS on time to exhaustion at 80% of peak power. Stimulation was administered before each test over 13 min at a current intensity of 2.0 mA. In each session, the Brunel Mood State questionnaire was given twice: after stimulation and after the time-to-exhaustion test. Further, during the tests, the electromyographic activity of the vastus lateralis and rectus femoris muscles, perceived exertion, and heart rate were recorded. RM-ANOVA showed that the subjects performed better during anodal primary motor cortex stimulation (491 ± 100 s) compared with cathodal stimulation (443 ± 11 s) and sham (407 ± 69 s). No significant difference was observed between the cathodal and sham conditions. The effect sizes confirmed the greater effect of anodal M1 tDCS (anodal x cathodal = 0.47; anodal x sham = 0.77; and cathodal x sham = 0.29). Magnitude-based inference suggested the anodal condition to be positive versus the cathodal and sham conditions. There were no differences among the three stimulation conditions in RPE (p = 0.07) or heart rate (p = 0.73). However, as hypothesized, RM- ANOVA revealed a main effect of time for the two variables (RPE and HR: p < 0.001). EMG activity also did not differ during the test accross the different conditions. We conclude that anodal tDCS increases exercise tolerance in a cycling-based, constant-load exercise test, performed at 80% of peak power. Performance was enhanced in the absence of changes in physiological and perceptual variables. SN - 1932-6203 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/26674200/Improving_Cycling_Performance:_Transcranial_Direct_Current_Stimulation_Increases_Time_to_Exhaustion_in_Cycling_ L2 - http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0144916 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -