Prevalence and risk factors for under nutrition among children under five at Haramaya district, Eastern Ethiopia.BMC Pediatr. 2015 Dec 16; 15:212.BPed
Under nutrition is one of the major causes of health problems among children under five years old in Ethiopia. Though the problem of under nutrition has decreased in the country, it is still continuing as one of the major causes of mortality of children under five. Studies have shown that the magnitude and related factors of under nutrition are varied in different agro-ecological settings of the country. Thus it is indispensable to assess the nature of the problem at community level. The objective of this study was to assess the extent of under nutrition and related factors among children under five years in Haramaya district, eastern Ethiopia.
A community based cross sectional study was conducted in Haramaya district from December 1, 2012 to January 30, 2013 and Multi-stage stratified systematic random sampling technique was used to select the study subjects. A total of 791 study subjects were included in the study. Data were collected using face-to-face interview and anthropometric measurements. World Health Organization (WHO) Anthro software was used to convert nutritional data indices from anthropometric measurement into Z-scores, and Multivariate logistic regression model with an enter method was used to determine the predictors of under nutrition.
The study indicated that prevalence of stunting, wasting and underweight among children under five years old were 45.8%, 10.7 % and 21 % respectively. Children in rural Kebeles with Adjusted odd ratio (AOR) =2.45, 95% CI(1.25-6.66), children who were 6 and above birth order (AOR =1.992, 95% CI( 1.05-3.77)), and children who were used to live with households having two and more under five children (AOR = 1.81, 95% CI( 1.19-2.7)) were more stunted than their counterparts. Children in the lowland Kebeles, (AOR = 3.29, 95% CI( 1.2-8.8)) and children having diarrhea, (AOR = 2.48, 95% CI(1.28-4.78)); mothers with Body mass index (BMI) < 18.5 (AOR = 2.17, 95% CI(1.17-3.81)); mothers who did not have ANC visit during pregnancy (AOR = 3.47, 95% CI (1.49-7.8) ) and with birth order of 4 to 5 children (AOR = 3.08, 95% CI (1.11-8.5)), were more likely to be underweight than their counterparts. Moreover, male children (AOR = 2.37, 95% CI (1.19-4.7)), children who were served food with family (AOR = 2.3, 95% CI (1.14- 4.9)), children who had fever, (AOR = 2.9, 95% CI (1.16-7.2)), were more likely to be wasted than their counterparts.
This study indicated that nearly half of the children under five years in the study area were stunted. Thus, a large number of children had poor nutritional history or growth failure. Furthermore, underweight and wasting were significantly high. The problem can be addressed by targeting children since their early ages and by conducting tailored nutrition education to mothers or caretakers to improve the nutritional status of their children.