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Dietary vitamin D dose-response in healthy children 2 to 8 y of age: a 12-wk randomized controlled trial using fortified foods.
Am J Clin Nutr. 2016 Jan; 103(1):144-52.AJ

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Vitamin D is fundamental for bone health. A high proportion of Canadian 2- to 8-y-olds do not meet the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) of 400 IU/d.

OBJECTIVE

The objective was to determine whether vitamin D intakes consistent with the EAR or Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA), through fortification of additional dairy products, would result in higher vitamin D status in young children.

DESIGN

Participants aged 2-8 y (n = 77; Montreal, Canada) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 dietary vitamin D targets (control; EAR: 400 IU/d; or RDA: 600 IU/d) for 12 wk (January to April 2014). Anthropometric measurements, demographic characteristics, dietary intakes, fasting serum parathyroid hormone, 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], and ionized calcium were compared by using mixed-model ANOVA.

RESULTS

Participants' mean ± SD age was 5.1 ± 1.9 y; 54.5% were boys with body mass index z scores of 0.50 ± 0.85. Compliance was 85% overall. No differences were observed in baseline dietary vitamin D intakes or serum 25(OH)D. At 12 wk, the EAR and RDA groups had significantly higher vitamin D intakes [median (IQR): control, 227 (184-305) IU/d; EAR, 410 (363-516) IU/d; and RDA, 554 (493-653) IU/d; P < 0.05] and serum 25(OH)D concentrations (control: 55.8 ± 12.3 nmol/L; EAR: 64.1 ± 10.0 nmol/L; and RDA: 63.7 ± 12.4 nmol/L; P < 0.05) than the control group. Ninety-six percent of children in the EAR and RDA groups and 67% of the control group had 25(OH)D concentrations ≥50 nmol/L.

CONCLUSION

Increasing the vitamin D intakes of young children through fortification of alternative dairy products results in significantly higher serum concentrations of 25(OH)D and a significantly greater proportion of children with serum 25(OH)D ≥50 nmol/L during periods of minimal ultraviolet B radiation exposure. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02097160 and had Health Canada Temporary Marketing Authorization Letters for both products (TM-13-0432 and TM-13-0433).

Authors+Show Affiliations

School of Dietetics and Human Nutrition, McGill University, Sainte Anne de Bellevue, Quebec, Canada;School of Dietetics and Human Nutrition, McGill University, Sainte Anne de Bellevue, Quebec, Canada;School of Dietetics and Human Nutrition, McGill University, Sainte Anne de Bellevue, Quebec, Canada;School of Dietetics and Human Nutrition, McGill University, Sainte Anne de Bellevue, Quebec, Canada;Applied Health Research Centre, Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute of St. Michael's Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada; and.Shriners Hospital for Children, Department of Pediatrics, McGill University, Montreal, Canada.School of Dietetics and Human Nutrition, McGill University, Sainte Anne de Bellevue, Quebec, Canada; hope.weiler@mcgill.ca.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Randomized Controlled Trial
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

26675772

Citation

Brett, Neil R., et al. "Dietary Vitamin D Dose-response in Healthy Children 2 to 8 Y of Age: a 12-wk Randomized Controlled Trial Using Fortified Foods." The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 103, no. 1, 2016, pp. 144-52.
Brett NR, Lavery P, Agellon S, et al. Dietary vitamin D dose-response in healthy children 2 to 8 y of age: a 12-wk randomized controlled trial using fortified foods. Am J Clin Nutr. 2016;103(1):144-52.
Brett, N. R., Lavery, P., Agellon, S., Vanstone, C. A., Maguire, J. L., Rauch, F., & Weiler, H. A. (2016). Dietary vitamin D dose-response in healthy children 2 to 8 y of age: a 12-wk randomized controlled trial using fortified foods. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 103(1), 144-52. https://doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.115.115956
Brett NR, et al. Dietary Vitamin D Dose-response in Healthy Children 2 to 8 Y of Age: a 12-wk Randomized Controlled Trial Using Fortified Foods. Am J Clin Nutr. 2016;103(1):144-52. PubMed PMID: 26675772.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Dietary vitamin D dose-response in healthy children 2 to 8 y of age: a 12-wk randomized controlled trial using fortified foods. AU - Brett,Neil R, AU - Lavery,Paula, AU - Agellon,Sherry, AU - Vanstone,Catherine A, AU - Maguire,Jonathon L, AU - Rauch,Frank, AU - Weiler,Hope A, Y1 - 2015/12/16/ PY - 2015/05/27/received PY - 2015/11/05/accepted PY - 2015/12/18/entrez PY - 2015/12/18/pubmed PY - 2016/5/3/medline KW - dose response KW - food fortification KW - pediatric KW - randomized controlled trial KW - vitamin D SP - 144 EP - 52 JF - The American journal of clinical nutrition JO - Am. J. Clin. Nutr. VL - 103 IS - 1 N2 - BACKGROUND: Vitamin D is fundamental for bone health. A high proportion of Canadian 2- to 8-y-olds do not meet the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) of 400 IU/d. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to determine whether vitamin D intakes consistent with the EAR or Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA), through fortification of additional dairy products, would result in higher vitamin D status in young children. DESIGN: Participants aged 2-8 y (n = 77; Montreal, Canada) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 dietary vitamin D targets (control; EAR: 400 IU/d; or RDA: 600 IU/d) for 12 wk (January to April 2014). Anthropometric measurements, demographic characteristics, dietary intakes, fasting serum parathyroid hormone, 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], and ionized calcium were compared by using mixed-model ANOVA. RESULTS: Participants' mean ± SD age was 5.1 ± 1.9 y; 54.5% were boys with body mass index z scores of 0.50 ± 0.85. Compliance was 85% overall. No differences were observed in baseline dietary vitamin D intakes or serum 25(OH)D. At 12 wk, the EAR and RDA groups had significantly higher vitamin D intakes [median (IQR): control, 227 (184-305) IU/d; EAR, 410 (363-516) IU/d; and RDA, 554 (493-653) IU/d; P < 0.05] and serum 25(OH)D concentrations (control: 55.8 ± 12.3 nmol/L; EAR: 64.1 ± 10.0 nmol/L; and RDA: 63.7 ± 12.4 nmol/L; P < 0.05) than the control group. Ninety-six percent of children in the EAR and RDA groups and 67% of the control group had 25(OH)D concentrations ≥50 nmol/L. CONCLUSION: Increasing the vitamin D intakes of young children through fortification of alternative dairy products results in significantly higher serum concentrations of 25(OH)D and a significantly greater proportion of children with serum 25(OH)D ≥50 nmol/L during periods of minimal ultraviolet B radiation exposure. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02097160 and had Health Canada Temporary Marketing Authorization Letters for both products (TM-13-0432 and TM-13-0433). SN - 1938-3207 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/26675772/Dietary_vitamin_D_dose_response_in_healthy_children_2_to_8_y_of_age:_a_12_wk_randomized_controlled_trial_using_fortified_foods_ L2 - https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article-lookup/doi/10.3945/ajcn.115.115956 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -