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Effects of vitamin D2 or D3 supplementation on glycaemic control and cardiometabolic risk among people at risk of type 2 diabetes: results of a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial.
Diabetes Obes Metab. 2016 Apr; 18(4):392-400.DO

Abstract

AIMS

To investigate the effect of short-term vitamin D supplementation on cardiometabolic outcomes among individuals with an elevated risk of diabetes.

METHODS

In a double-blind placebo-controlled randomized trial, 340 adults who had an elevated risk of type 2 diabetes (non-diabetic hyperglycaemia or positive diabetes risk score) were randomized to either placebo, 100,000 IU vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol) or 100,000 IU vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol), orally administered monthly for 4 months. The primary outcome was change in glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) between baseline and 4 months, adjusted for baseline. Secondary outcomes included: blood pressure; lipid levels; apolipoprotein levels; C-reactive protein levels; pulse wave velocity (PWV); anthropometric measures; and safety of the supplementation.

RESULTS

The mean [standard deviation (s.d.)] 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D]2 concentration increased from 5.2 (4.1) to 53.9 (18.5) nmol/l in the D2 group, and the mean (s.d.) 25(OH)D3 concentration increased from 45.8 (22.6) to 83.8 (22.7) nmol/l in the D3 group. There was no effect of vitamin D supplementation on HbA1c: D2 versus placebo: -0.05% [95% confidence interval (CI) -0.11, 0.02] or -0.51 mmol/mol (95% CI -1.16, 0.14; p = 0.13); D3 versus placebo: 0.02% (95% CI -0.04, 0.08) or 0.19 mmol/mol (95% CI -0.46, 0.83; p = 0.57). There were no clinically meaningful effects on secondary outcomes, except PWV [D2 versus placebo: -0.68 m/s (95% CI -1.31, -0.05); D3 versus placebo -0.73 m/s (95% CI -1.42, -0.03)]. No important safety issues were identified.

CONCLUSIONS

Short-term supplementation with vitamin D2 or D3 had no effect on HbA1c. The modest reduction in PWV with both D2 and D3 relative to placebo suggests that vitamin D supplementation has a beneficial effect on arterial stiffness.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Medical Research Council Epidemiology Unit, University of Cambridge School of Clinical Medicine, Cambridge, UK.Blizard Institute, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK.Medical Research Council Epidemiology Unit, University of Cambridge School of Clinical Medicine, Cambridge, UK.Blizard Institute, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK.Homerton University Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK.Blizard Institute, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK.Medical Research Council Epidemiology Unit, University of Cambridge School of Clinical Medicine, Cambridge, UK.Blizard Institute, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK.Blizard Institute, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK. Barts Healthcare NHS Trust, London, UK.Blizard Institute, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK.Blizard Institute, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK.Medical Research Council Epidemiology Unit, University of Cambridge School of Clinical Medicine, Cambridge, UK.Blizard Institute, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK.

Pub Type(s)

Comparative Study
Journal Article
Multicenter Study
Randomized Controlled Trial
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

26700109

Citation

Forouhi, N G., et al. "Effects of Vitamin D2 or D3 Supplementation On Glycaemic Control and Cardiometabolic Risk Among People at Risk of Type 2 Diabetes: Results of a Randomized Double-blind Placebo-controlled Trial." Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism, vol. 18, no. 4, 2016, pp. 392-400.
Forouhi NG, Menon RK, Sharp SJ, et al. Effects of vitamin D2 or D3 supplementation on glycaemic control and cardiometabolic risk among people at risk of type 2 diabetes: results of a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2016;18(4):392-400.
Forouhi, N. G., Menon, R. K., Sharp, S. J., Mannan, N., Timms, P. M., Martineau, A. R., Rickard, A. P., Boucher, B. J., Chowdhury, T. A., Griffiths, C. J., Greenwald, S. E., Griffin, S. J., & Hitman, G. A. (2016). Effects of vitamin D2 or D3 supplementation on glycaemic control and cardiometabolic risk among people at risk of type 2 diabetes: results of a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism, 18(4), 392-400. https://doi.org/10.1111/dom.12625
Forouhi NG, et al. Effects of Vitamin D2 or D3 Supplementation On Glycaemic Control and Cardiometabolic Risk Among People at Risk of Type 2 Diabetes: Results of a Randomized Double-blind Placebo-controlled Trial. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2016;18(4):392-400. PubMed PMID: 26700109.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Effects of vitamin D2 or D3 supplementation on glycaemic control and cardiometabolic risk among people at risk of type 2 diabetes: results of a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. AU - Forouhi,N G, AU - Menon,R K, AU - Sharp,S J, AU - Mannan,N, AU - Timms,P M, AU - Martineau,A R, AU - Rickard,A P, AU - Boucher,B J, AU - Chowdhury,T A, AU - Griffiths,C J, AU - Greenwald,S E, AU - Griffin,S J, AU - Hitman,G A, Y1 - 2016/02/04/ PY - 2015/11/10/received PY - 2015/11/30/revised PY - 2015/12/17/accepted PY - 2015/12/25/entrez PY - 2015/12/25/pubmed PY - 2016/12/20/medline KW - intervention KW - placebo KW - pulse wave velocity KW - randomized KW - trial KW - type 2 diabetes KW - vitamin D2 KW - vitamin D3 SP - 392 EP - 400 JF - Diabetes, obesity & metabolism JO - Diabetes Obes Metab VL - 18 IS - 4 N2 - AIMS: To investigate the effect of short-term vitamin D supplementation on cardiometabolic outcomes among individuals with an elevated risk of diabetes. METHODS: In a double-blind placebo-controlled randomized trial, 340 adults who had an elevated risk of type 2 diabetes (non-diabetic hyperglycaemia or positive diabetes risk score) were randomized to either placebo, 100,000 IU vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol) or 100,000 IU vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol), orally administered monthly for 4 months. The primary outcome was change in glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) between baseline and 4 months, adjusted for baseline. Secondary outcomes included: blood pressure; lipid levels; apolipoprotein levels; C-reactive protein levels; pulse wave velocity (PWV); anthropometric measures; and safety of the supplementation. RESULTS: The mean [standard deviation (s.d.)] 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D]2 concentration increased from 5.2 (4.1) to 53.9 (18.5) nmol/l in the D2 group, and the mean (s.d.) 25(OH)D3 concentration increased from 45.8 (22.6) to 83.8 (22.7) nmol/l in the D3 group. There was no effect of vitamin D supplementation on HbA1c: D2 versus placebo: -0.05% [95% confidence interval (CI) -0.11, 0.02] or -0.51 mmol/mol (95% CI -1.16, 0.14; p = 0.13); D3 versus placebo: 0.02% (95% CI -0.04, 0.08) or 0.19 mmol/mol (95% CI -0.46, 0.83; p = 0.57). There were no clinically meaningful effects on secondary outcomes, except PWV [D2 versus placebo: -0.68 m/s (95% CI -1.31, -0.05); D3 versus placebo -0.73 m/s (95% CI -1.42, -0.03)]. No important safety issues were identified. CONCLUSIONS: Short-term supplementation with vitamin D2 or D3 had no effect on HbA1c. The modest reduction in PWV with both D2 and D3 relative to placebo suggests that vitamin D supplementation has a beneficial effect on arterial stiffness. SN - 1463-1326 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/26700109/Effects_of_vitamin_D2_or_D3_supplementation_on_glycaemic_control_and_cardiometabolic_risk_among_people_at_risk_of_type_2_diabetes:_results_of_a_randomized_double_blind_placebo_controlled_trial_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1111/dom.12625 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -