Sex Dimorphism Profile of Alzheimer's Disease-Type Pathologies in an APP/PS1 Mouse Model.Neurotox Res. 2016 Feb; 29(2):256-66.NR
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia among the elderly, characterized by parenchymal and vascular beta-amyloid (Aβ) burden, tau pathology, neuroinflammation, and loss of neurons and synapses. There is a clear sex difference in the prevalence of AD. However, sex differences in AD-type pathologies have not been systematically documented. Applying 12-month-old female and male APP/PS1 mice as a model, we investigated the sex dimorphism in these major pathological indices. Compared with male APP/PS1 mice, the females exhibited higher parenchymal Aβ burdens, with the sex difference in hippocampus being the most significant. Female APP/PS1 mice had more severe cerebral amyloid angiopathy and subsequent microhemorrhage. In addition, female APP/PS1 mice also showed higher levels of phosphorylated tau and proinflammatory cytokines, more severe astrocytosis and microgliosis, and greater neuronal and synaptic degenerations. The present study systematically described a sex dimorphism in AD-type pathologic indices, suggesting that gender should be taken into account in designing studies involving these pathological indices and when interpreting the relevant findings in those studies.